2018년 11월 27일 화요일

소리: 741/432 Hz, 852/432, 639 Hz (Musicoterapia)

- Solfeggio 741Hz Musica para Limpiar tu Cuerpo de Energías Negativas y Purificar tus Células - 432Hz, thanks to Musicoterapia

- 852Hz, Eliminar los Miedos de tu subconsciente, Música de la Felicidad para Sentirse Libre 432Hz, thanks to Musicoterapia

-639 Hz | Frecuencia para Armonizar las Relaciones | Música de Alta vibración y Energía Positiva

소리: 639 Hz (Gaia Meditation and others)

- Heart Opening: Chakra Balancing (Binaural Beats), thanks to Gaia Meditation | 30 minutes

- Fréquence Sacrée 639 Hz | Musique pour ATTIRER L'AMOUR, thanks to Gaia Meditation | 2 hours

- Harmonize Relationships | Heal Old Negative Energy - Attract Love, thanks to ZenLifeRelax

2018년 11월 22일 목요일

용례:// 'district priorities' in school assignment (student assignment)

1. district priorities (eliminating a particular socioeconomic imbalance, for instance) ... https://www2.ed.gov/admins/comm/choice/magnet/report_pg7.html

2. district's priorities

Goal 2: The superintendent will align the District's priorities and resources through a community-involved planning process implemented through focused action plans with regular progress reports.

3. district's priorities for student assignment

People understood the problems associated with concentrating "under-served" students in the same school, but they also pointed to the challenges of both achieving and supporting diversity at school sites. Parents noted that schools that are currently academically and ethnically diverse struggle to serve the complex needs of their students. Most participants questioned whether any of the options would achieve this goal and asked why the district's priorities for student assignment did not address improving schools.

4. District Priorities

.... district leaders can turn federal grant budgets into a much more powerful tool for student achievement and use them to help fund many of the district's strategic priorities. ....

The complexity, silo-like management, and relative lack of visibility can lead to federal dollars being used well from a legal standpoint, but not from a strategic standpoint. Many districts have a wide range of grant-specific programs in place that are not as connected to one another, or to ^district priorities^, as they would be if the funding strategies were managed centrally by leaders charged with comprehensive district improvement. ...

Each major grant program is typically run by a separate manager, and as a result, it is difficult for many managers to resist "silo thinking." They lose the capacity to see or value a tight connection between "my grant program" and "the district priorities." The "silo thinking" is exacerbated by their sense of responsibility to ensure that "their grant program" complies with all federal and state requirements, including "allowable use" of funds, "maintenance of efforts," "supplement, not supplant," and reporting.

IDEA, the federal grant related to special education, offers districts several opportunities to integrate, coordinate, and align grant activities with district priorities:

5. district priorities:

... Non-autonomous principals reported a misalignment between school and district priorities and limited district support for improving school functioning.

6. Shifting Resources Strategically to Fund District Priorities

Collecting more detailed and better data than is typically collected during budget planning can reveal a surprising amount of resources for free up for district priorities. ....

This was the case for a district with around 5,000 students. Targets for staffing and class size were established, and most schools were living within these targets. Over time, however, student enrollment had shifted at certain schools and in certain grades, but staffing had remained fairly constant. When students moved, the schools they left did not adjust their staffing, but the schools to which the students moved were allocated more staff. Then when the district leaders reviewed staffing each year, they looked at the district's average class size, which appeared to be well within their class-size targets. Even the average across each school indicated the schools were operating within district targets. Only when district leaders looked at class sizes room by room, grade by grade, and school by school did they identify specific grades at specific schools that were well outside the targets. Even though these accounted for less than 10% of all classrooms in the district, adjustments to these resulted in savings of almost $500,000 which was then redirected toward other district priorities. This example highlights the importance of analyzing the data on a more granular level. It also demonstrates that opportunities can be found even in a tightly managed district, and that sizeable savings can result from relatively small adjustments.  ... https://www.dmgroupk12.com/docmanlinks/5-dmj-18-shifting-resources-strategically-to-fund-district-priorities/file

2018년 11월 8일 목요일

Cell Biology:// Heteroplasmy vs. Homoplasmy

- A cell can have some mitochondria that have a mutation in the mtDNA and some that do not. This is termed heteroplasmy. The proportion of mutant mtDNA molecules determines both the penetrance and severity of expression of some diseases.

- Homoplasmy refers to a cell that has a uniform collection of mtDNA: either completely normal mtDNA or completely mutant mtDNA.

- A unique feature of mtDNA is that, at cell division, the mtDNA replicates and sorts randomly among mitochondria. In turn, the mitochondria sort randomly among daughter cells. Therefore, in cells where heteroplasmy is present, each daughter cell may receive different proportions of mitochondria carrying normal and mutant mtDNA.

2. 출처: Mitochondrial DNA, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell; most of DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in [plastids] such as [chloroplasts].

In humans, the 16,569 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA encode for only 37 genes. Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

Since animal mtDNA evolves faster than nuclear genetic markers, it represents a mainstay of phylogenetics and evolutionary biology. It also permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, and so has become important in anthropology and biogeography. ( ... ... )

출처 3: FAQs: Mitochondrial DNA Explained (Phillips DNA Project)

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is genetic material found in mitochondria.  It is passed down from mothers to both sons and daughters, but sons cannot pass along their mothers' mtDNA to their children.  This is because mtDNA is transmitted through the female egg.  The mtDNA found in the egg is nonrecombinant, meaning that it does not combine with any other DNA so that it is passed down virtually unchanged through the direct maternal line over the generations.  You inherited your mtDNA exclusively from your mother.

The mtDNA test is more of an anthropological test than a genealogical test.  From a genealogical standpoint, mtDNA is not very useful for two reasons.  The first reason is ( ... ... )

The second reason mtDNA is not very useful for historical genealogical research is because mtDNA mutates very, very slowly - much slower than yDNA.  This means that your mtDNA is nearly identical to the mtDNA of your straight line maternal ancestor who lived thousands of years ago, and it is also identical to thousands of people living today.  My mother has over 1,000 low resolution mtDNA matches in the FTDNA database.  This means she shares a common maternal ancestor with them somewhere back in time.  The problem is there is no way to know whether this common maternal ancestor lived recently or thousands of years ago. ( ... ... )

2018년 11월 7일 수요일

소리: Musica Relajante (thanks to Musicoterapia)

1. Frecuencia de la Felicidad: Musica para Liberar Serotonina, Dopamina y Endorfinas - Musica Relajante (by Musicoterapia)


3. Música para Dormir Profundamente y Relajarse | Ondas Delta | Música Relajante para Dormir Adultos (by Musicoterapia)

2018년 11월 2일 금요일

Some talks of wisdom

This is a reproduction, with my own fingers, of these kind talks of wisdom by Tom Montalk in order to reread it deep in my mind.

Source: Tom Montalk, http://montalk.net/matrix

* * *

What is the Matrix? School or prison, depending on your chosen perspective. On the other hand, it is a hyperdimensional teaching system accelerating your rate of spiritual evolution by providing you with catalytic experiences in response to your thoughts, emotions and spiritual composition.

On the other hand, many of these experiences manifest as predatory forces preying upon your weaknesses. Of course, the only way to prevent being manipulated by these forces is to discover, integrate, and transform your weaknesses into strengths, thereby indirectly accomplishing the higher purpose of the Matrix which is to help you transcend it.

Nevertheless, these predatory forces possess freewill and have their own agenda, which is to expand their power base and sustain themselves by feeding upon humanity's emotional energies as well as keeping anyone from becoming aware enough to add destabilizing influences to the spiritual prison/farm they are running here on Earth.

The sum total of their hyperdimensional manipulation system may be termed the "Matrix Control System." It is a school of hard knocks that weakens the spiritually weak and strengthens the spiritually strong, in accordance with their choice to be victims or warriors.

Hyperdimensional Predators:
  • Beyond the human level of evolution are several levels occupied by more sophisticated forms of life, including hostile beings with the ability to transcend space and linear time, read thought, manipulate emotions, puppeteer unawar individuals, and project themselves in and out of our physical reality.
  • They required emotional, etheric, vital energy to sustain themselves; mankind has long been their primary food source. They feed upon energies that are in resonance with their own soul vibrations: negative emotions, psychological suffering, and perverted sexual energies.
  • Being greedy as they are, rather than just harvesting naturally occurring energies emitted by those who have freely chosen to engage in lower vibrational behavior, these predators seek to induce ignorance, suffering, and perversion in as many people as possible to maximize their energy harvest. While this isn't technically a freewill violation (because they can only amplify what latent negative tendencies we already have within us), their forceful milking of energy via the Matrix Control System does constitute an imbalance because it encourages ignorance and slavery instead of awareness and freedom.

Suppression of Awareness:
  • Because hostile hyper dimensional forces have a vested interest in the Matrix Control System, they go to extraordinary lengths to suppress any destabilizing factors that could disrupt their food supply. Anyone who starts the process of waking up and regaining personal power and freedom is immediately targeted. The targeting aims to put him or her back to sleep, render him powerless, or make him or lose faith in continuing his path.
  • When a personal impulse toward freedom occurs, an equal and opposite impulse is set into motion, attracting to the target various negatively synchronistic opportunities to engage in vibe-lowering experiences to offset his impulse toward freedom. These include situations that aim to induce fear, distraction, suffering, doubt, depression, indulgence in lower impulses, and self-serving behavior.
  • Sometimes this phenomenon arises naturally from the law of inertia (occult and karmic laws) while other times there is intentional and active amplification of this counter-impulse by negative hyper dimensional forces to disarm the threat before he gains more power.
  • Other methods of suppression include sabotaging and distracting a targeted individual via people around him who are open to direct manipulation. Anyone who fails to be fully conscious in the present moment can be a puppet for as long as his or her attention is elsewhere. Lapses of attention are enough for a subconsciously implanted impulses to result in regrettable words or actions.
  • Most people in this world place no priority on awareness or attentiveness, and instead live life in a semi-conscious dream state that makes them very prone to being nudged by external influences. Some are born with insufficient levels of individualized consciousness to ever experience a lucid moment, and it is these who form the primary class of "Matrix agents," the rest of us functioning as agents only part of the time when we fail to watch ourselves. Due to the plethora of spiritually asleep people in the population, the Matrix Control System has no problem finding chess piees to maneuver into place around a target.

The Bigger Picture:
  • While we may not always be the source of injustice against us, we are the cause of its entrance into our lives. The Matrix, even with all its imbalanes and corruption by those freewill entities who have overstepped their place in nature, is nevertheless still a learning program entirely responsive to our own ignorance and weaknesses. It may be a predator's choice to attack, but it is our choice to accept the attack and succumb to it.
  • The Matrix Control System can only trip us via the elements within us that correspond to its low vibratory nature. If we ignore our intuition, have blind spots in our awareness, or engage in ignoble feeling and behaviors, then these are the avenues through which we are had. Attacks serve to identify our own weaknesses, thus providing focus for where to take the next step on one's path of spiritual awakening.

2018년 10월 28일 일요일

e북:// "A Grammar of the French Language, with Practical Exercises"

출처: Nicolas Wanostrocht, "A Grammar of the French Language, with Practical Exercises" Richardson & Lord, 1831.

e북: https://archive.org/details/agrammarfrenchl00frangoog/page/n4

Dic: lose// lose a word


a) to fail to see, hear, or understand:
b) to fail to keep in sight, mind, or existence.

  • She did not lose a word of his speech.

2018년 10월 27일 토요일

소리: Schumann Resonance, 963 Hz, Awaken in a Silver Land


1. Schumann Resonance: From Earth to Heart

2. 963Hz Secrets of the Third Eye

3. Awake in a Silver Land

소리: 741 Hz, 417 Hz, and All Solfeggios

1. Solfeggio 741Hz + 417Hz With Water Sounds (by Harmony of the Mind)

2. 417 Hz Life Changing Tone (by Music from the Firmament)

3. Solfeggio Frequencies, Healing Sound Therapy (by Music From the Firmament)

2018년 10월 26일 금요일

Words from a meditative mind

Death is nothing at all. It does not count. I have only slipped away into the next room. Nothing has happened. Everything remains exactly as it was. I am I, and you are you, and the old life that we lived so fondly together is untouched, unchanged. Whatever we were to each other, that we are still. Call me by the old familiar name. Speak of me in the easy way which you always used. Put no difference into your tone. Wear no forced air of solemnity or sorrow. Laugh as we always laughed at the little jokes that we enjoyed together. Play, smile, think of me, pray for me. Let my name be ever the household word that it always was. Let it be spoken without an effort, without the ghost of a shadow upon it. Life means all that it ever meant. It is the same as it ever was. There is absolute and unbroken continuity. What is this death but a negligible accident? Why should I be out of mind because I am out of sight? I am but waiting for you, for an interval, somewhere very near, just round the corner. All is well.

Nothing is hurt; nothing is lost. One brief moment and all will be as it was before. How we shall laugh at the trouble of parting when we meet again!

─ Henry Scott-Holland (1847 ~ 1918)

* * *

2018년 10월 17일 수요일

소리: Golden Om Fractal 528Hz/Theta, Deep Sound Healing 432Hz/Theta (by Source Vibrations)

1. Golden Om Fractal 528Hz/Theta

2. Deep Sound Healing 432Hz/Theta

소리: Pineal Gland Calibration 432/Theta, Sonic Medicine (by Source Vibration)

1. Pineal Gland Calibration ~ 432Hz Theta Meditation

2. Sonic Medicine

소리: Solfeggio Harmonics (by Source Vibrations)

Vol. 1

Vol. 2

2018년 10월 15일 월요일

소리: Solfeggio 528 Hz (1)

  - 528 Hz ( Water + Tibetan Bowls + Om)

소리: 432/528 Hz Musics + Theta Brainwave Binaurat Beats (Gaia Meditation)

 - "Tibetan Om Chanting" : 432 Hz + Theta Brainwaves Binaural Beats (By Gaia Meditation)

  - "Flow of LIfe (Anxiety Relief)" : 528 Hz + Theta Brainwave Binaural Beats (By Gaia Meditation)

  - "Mountain Call (Deep Meditation)" : 432 Hz + Theta Brainwave Binaural Beats (By Gaia Meditation)

  - "Astral Travel (Out-of-Body Experience)" : 432 Hz + Theta Brainwave Binaural Beats (By Gaia Meditation)

소리: Solfeggio 285 Hz (1)

 - Aurora 285 Solfeggio + Theta 4 Hz binaural beats (by Ambient Dharma)

  - 285 Hz (Healing, Sleep Music)

2018년 9월 26일 수요일

발췌: Diagrammatic Immanence: Category Theory and Philosophy (2016)

※ 출판사 요약:

A renewal of immanent metaphysics through diagrammatic methods and the tools of category theorySpinoza, Peirce and Deleuze are, in different ways, philosophers of immanence. Rocco Gangle addresses the methodological questions raised by a commitment to immanence in terms of how diagrams may be used both as tools and as objects of philosophical investigation. He integrates insights from Spinozist metaphysics, Peircean semiotics and Deleuzes philosophy of difference in conjunction with the formal operations of category theory. Category theory reveals deep structural connections among logic, topology and a variety of different areas of mathematics, and it provides constructive and rigorous concepts for investigating how diagrams work. Gangle introduces the methods of category theory from a philosophical and diagrammatic perspective, allowing philosophers with little or no mathematical training to come to grips with this important field. This coordination of immanent metaphysics, diagrammatic method and category theoretical mathematics opens a new horizon for contemporary thought.

※ 발췌 (excerpt): Introduction

The present book develops an immanent ontology of relations based on the dynamics of formal diagrams. Elements of Spinoza's metaphysics of immanence, Peirce's semiotics and Deleuze's philosophy of difference are here integrated in an ontology of diagrammatic relations expressed formally in the framework of elementary category theory.

The book has three broad goals: to outline an integrative approach to the problem of immanence in Spinoza, Peirce and Deleuze; to develop a model of ontology based on diagrammatic relations; and to introduce some of the most important constructions and basic techniques of category theory to a philosophically but not necessarily mathematically informed audience. The book thus brings together a philosophical concept (immanence), an experimental methodology (diagrams) and a contemporary field of mathematics (categories). ( ... )

The three areas correlate roughly to three central theses:

(1) Immanent metaphysics entails relational ontology.
(2) Diagrams are the appropriate method for investigating immanence immanently.
(3) Category theory is the appropriate mathematics for modelling and investigating diagrams.

The book's overarching airm is to show the inner coherence of these three claims and to suggest something of why contemporary philosophy ought to care about them. ( ... )

2018년 9월 18일 화요일

소리: Solfeggio 174 Hz (1)

 - Solfeggio 174 Hz : Pain Relief, Pure Tone Sleep Music (by Meditative Mind). 9H

 - Solfeggio 174 Hz : Healing Emotional & Physical Pain, Relaxation (by Zen Life Relax)

 - Solfeggio 174 Hz: Helping in Pain Relief, Pure Miracle Tones (by Meditative Mind). 1H

2018년 9월 15일 토요일

Reading Materials

#Quantum_Networking #Plant_Consciousness

A. John Archibald Wheeler (1988). "World as System Self-Synthesized by Quantum Networking." In: Agazzi E. (eds) Probability in the Sciences. Synthese Library (Studies in Epistemology, Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science), vol 201. Springer, Dordrecht.

─. Source: Springer (PDF);

─. Abstract:

The quantum, strangest featrue of this strange universe cracks the armor that conceals the secret of existence. In contrast to the view that the universe is a machine governed by some magic equation, we explore here the view that the world is a self-synthesizing system of existence, built on observer-participancy via a network of elementary quantum phenomena. The elementary quantum phenomenon in the sense of Bohr, the elementary act of observer-participancy, develops definiteness out of indeterminism, secures a communicable reply in response to a well-defined question. The rate of carrying out such yes-no determinations, and their accumulated number, are both minuscule today when compared to the rate and number to be anticipated in the billions of years yet to come. The coming explosion of life opens the door, no minor part of what we call ^its^ past─^our^ past, present, and future─but this whole vast world.

─. Contents and some excepts:

1. The World: A Great Machine Or A Great Idea?

2. No Continuum

3. The Lesson of the Elementary Quantum Phenomenon

4. Austerity

5. Timelessness

6. The World of Existences as a System Self-Synthesized by Quantum Networking

No time, no law, no machinery and no continuum: Four clues ....

We see how powerful our four clues are when we compare and contrast the schematic diagram of Figure 1 for the world as a system self-synthesized by quantum networking with two other self-synthesizing systems, the mordern worldwide telecommunications system and life.

7. Great Question

* * *

B. František Baluška (Editor), Monica Gagliano (Goodreads Author) (Editor), Guenther Witzany (Editor). "Memory and Learning in Plants."

─. Goodreads Link

C. Elizabeth Pennisi. "Plants communicate distress using their own kind of nervous system." Science. Sep. 13, 2018.

2018년 9월 12일 수요일

소리: Pure Brainwaves: Theta 4 Hz, 7 Hz (Gaia Meditation)

5. Theta (by Gaia Meditation)

- Pure Theta Waves Binaural Beats (4 Hz), Deep Meditation:

- Pure Theta Waves Binaural Beats (7 Hz):

소리: Pure Brainwaves (Gamma, Delta)

3. Gamma (by Gaia Meditation)

  - Pure Gamma Waves (40 Hz) Isochronic Tones to Improve Focus and Learning:

  - Gamma Waves Isochronic Tones (70 Hz - Pure) for Inspiration:

4. Delta (by Gaia Meditation)

  - Pure Delta Waves (0.5 Hz Binaural Beats):

  - Pure Delta Waves (2.5 Hz) 1H Binaural Beats, Anxiety Relief:

소리: Pure Brainwaves (Alpha, Beta)

1. Alpha (by Gaia Meditation)

  - Pure Alpha Waves Binaural (10 Hz), Relaxation:

  - Pure Alpha Waves Bunaural Beats (12 Hz):

2. Beta (by Gaia Meditation)

  - Pure Beta Waves (18 Hz) Isochronic Tones, Concentration and Memory Improvement:

  - Beta Waves Isochronic Tones To Study (27 Hz - Pure):

2018년 9월 11일 화요일

소리: Solfeggio (all 9, 963+852+639, 741)

- All 9 Solfeggio's: 174 Hz, 285 Hz, 396 Hz, 417 Hz, 528 Hz, 639 Hz, 741 Hz, 852Hz, 963 Hz

- 963 Hz, 852 Hz, 639 Hz

- 741 Hz

2018년 9월 9일 일요일

소리: Om sounds at 432Hz & 528Hz (by Charcoil, 2015)

By Charcoil, 2015.

2018년 9월 8일 토요일

소리: The Magdalene Codes Activation II (by Stella)

1. The Magdalene Codes Activation II (by Stella with Craig Pruess. December 2017. 432Hz)

2. Magdalene Codes (by Stella with Craig Pruess, September 2018. 432Hz)

_. Best of Stella 432 Relaxation

소리: Web of Life (432Hz)

옴~ 소리: 432Hz, 528Hz

2018년 9월 4일 화요일

Short-lived experiene of a strong uncomfortable oscillation

On Sep 4 around 0h ~ 1h AM, a short-lived and strong but quite uncomfortable & unfamilliar oscillation was felt in an inner area of the frontal part in my brain. It's near the inside part between the eyebrows. It was a strange experience first ever felt.

2018년 8월 6일 월요일

[발췌: Gale & Shapley] College Admissions and the Stability of Marriage.

자료: http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~cs787-1/GaleShapley.pdf

※ 발췌 (excerpt):

A certain community consists of n men and n women. Each person ranks those of the opposite sex in accordance with his or her preferences for a marriage partner. We seek a satisfactory way of marrying off all members of the community. Imitating our earlier definition, we call a set of marriages ^unstable^ (and here the suitability of the term is quite clear) if under it there are a man and a woman who are not married to each other but prefer each other to their actual mates. 

Question: For any pattern of preferences is it possible to find a stable set of marriages?

Before giving the answer let us look at some examples.

Example 1. The following is the "ranking matrix" of three men α, β, and γ, and three women, A, B, an C.

    A    B    C
α    (1, 3)    (2, 2)    (3, 1)
β    (3, 1)    (1, 3)    (2, 2)
γ    (2, 2)    (3, 1)    (1, 3)

The first number of each pair in the matrix gives the ranking of women by the men, the second number is the ranking of the men by the women. Thus, α ranks first A, B second, C third, while A ranks β first, γ second, and α third, etc.

There are six possible sets of marriages; of these three are stable. ( ... ... )

Example 2. The ranking matrix is the following.

( ... ... )

Example 3. A problem similar to the marriage problem is the "problem of the roommates." An even number of boys wish to divide up into pairs of roommates. A set of parings is called ^stable^ if under it there are no two boys who are not roommates and who prefer each other to their actual roommates. An easy example shows that there can be situations in which there exists no stable pairing. Namely, consider boys α, β, γ and δ, where α ranks β first, β ranks γ first, γ ranks α first, and α, β and γ all rank δ last. Then regardless of δ's preferences there can be no stable pairing, for whoever has to room with δ will want to move out, and one of the other two will be willing to take him in.

The above examples would indicate that the solution to the stability problem is not immediately evident. Nevertheless,

Theorem 1. ^There always exists a stable set of marriages.^

^Proof.^ We shall prove existence by giving an iterative procedure for actually finding a stable set of marriages.

To start, let each boy propose to his favorite girl. Each girl who receives more than one proposal rejects all but her favorite from among those who have proposed to her. However, she does not accept him yet, but keeps him on a string to allow for the possibility that someone better may come along later.

We are now ready for the second stage. Those boys who were rejected now propose to their second choices. Each girl receiving proposals chooses her favorite from the group consisting of the new proposers and they boy on her string, if any. She rejects all the rest and again keeps the favorite in suspense.

We proceed in the same manner. Those who are rejected at the second stage propose to their next choices, and the girls again reject all but the best proposal they have had so far.

Eventually (in fact, in at most n^2 -2n + 2 stages) every girl will have received a proposal, for as long as any girl has not been proposed to there will be rejections and new proposals, but since no boy can propose to the same girl more than once, every girl is sure to get a proposal in due time. As soon as the last girl gets her proposal the "courtship" is declared over, and each girl is now required to accept the boy on her string.

We assert that this set of marriages is stable. Namely, suppose John and Marry are not married to each other but John prefers Mary to his own wife. Then John must have proposed to Mary at some stage and subsequently been rejected in favor of someone that Mary liked better. It is now clear that Mary must prefer her husband to John and there is no instability.

The reader may amuse himself by applying the procedure of the proof to solve the problems of Examles 1 and 2, or the following example [3] which requires ten iterations:

( ... ... )

It is clear that there is an entirely symmetrical procedure, with girls proposing to boys, which must also lead to a stable set of marriages. The two solutions are not generally the same as shown by Example 1; indeed, we shall see in a moment that when boys propose, the result is optimal for the boys, and when the girls propose it is optimal for the girls. The solution by two procedures will be the same only when there is a unique stable set of marriages.

4. Stable Assignments and the Admissions Problem.s ( ... ... )

* * *

Example 3:

    A    B    C    D
α    1,3    2,2    3,1    4,3
β    1,4    2,3    3,2    4,4
γ    3,1    1,4    2,3    4,2
δ    2,2    3,1    1,4    4,1

1st: α(A), β(A), γ(B), δ(C)    → A(α,β), B(γ), C(δ), D(-),    β(rejected)
2nd: β(B)            → A(α), B(γ,β), C(δ), D(-),    γ(rejected)
3rd: γ(C)            → A(α), B(β), C(δ,γ), D(-),    δ(rejected)
4th: δ(A)            → A(α,δ), B(β), C(γ), D(-),    α(rejected)
5th: α(B)            → A(δ), B(β,α), C(γ), D(-),    β(rejected)
6th: β(C)            → A(δ), B(α), C(γ,β), D(-),    γ(rejected)
7th: γ(A)            → A(δ,γ), B(α), C(β), D(-),    δ(rejected)
8th: δ(B)            → A(γ), B(α,δ), C(β), D(-),    α(rejected)
9th: α(C)            → A(γ), B(δ), C(β,α), D(-),    β(rejected)
10th: β(D)            → A(γ), B(δ), C(α), D(β)         -

2018년 8월 1일 수요일

[국외 신간] Taxation: Philosophical Perspectives

출처: Martin O'Neill and Shepley Orr 편집, Taxation: Philosophical Perspectives, Oxford University Press, 2018년 8월 7일.

자료: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/taxation-9780199609222?cc=kr&lang=en&promocode=AAFLYG6

* * *


Introduction, Martin O'Neill and Shepley Orr

Part I. On the Tax System: Normative and Conceptual Questions

  • 1: What Political Philosophy Should Learn from Economics about Taxation, Alan Hamlin
  • 2: Welfarism, Libertarianism, and Fairness in the Economic Approach to Taxation, Marc Fleurbaey
  • 3: Striving for the Middle Ground: Taxation, Justice and the Status of Private Rights, Geoffrey Brennan
  • 4: Taxing or Taking: Property Rhetoric and the Justice of Taxation, Laura Biron
  • 5: Libertarianism and Taxation, Peter Vallentyne
  • 6: Tax Policy and Fair Inequality, Alexander Cappelen and Bertil Tungodden
  • 7: Beggar Your Neighbour (Or Why You Do Want to Pay Your Taxes), Véronique Munoz-Dardé and M. G. F. Martin

Part II. Tax Policy and Forms of Taxation: Philosophical Issues
  • 8: The Case for a Progressive Benefits Tax, Barbara Fried
  • 9: Moral Objections to Inheritance Tax, Stuart White
  • 10: The Politics of Land Value Taxation, Iain McLean
  • 11: The State and Tax Competition: a Normative Perspective, Peter Dietsch
  • 12: Global Taxation and Accounting Arrangements: Some Normatively Desirable and Feasible Policy Recommendations, Gillian Brock and Rachel McMaster

2018년 7월 23일 월요일

신간 예고: Exodus

지은이: Kevin Carson
제목: Exodus: General Idea of the Revolution in the 21st Century
출처 1: http://kevinacarson.org/publication/exodus/
출처 2: https://exodus875.wordpress.com/

2018년 7월 22일 일요일

소리: MuOM

* * *

* * *

2018년 7월 21일 토요일

Systemic transformation을 위한 책 세 권

─. Doughnut Economics by Kate Raworth

─. The Patterning Instinct by Jeremy Lent

─. Designing Regenerative Cultures by Daniel Christian Wahl


─. 기타: https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=418771865286657&id=100014615418677

"The Present State of Economics: Errors and Omissions Excepted,"

Dirk H. Ehnts and Fritz Helmerdag, "The Present State of Economics: Errors and Omissions Excepted,"

in Post-Crash Economics, Plurality and  Heterodox Ideas in Teaching and Research. 2018. pp. 149-172.


2018년 7월 14일 토요일

2018년 7월 6일 금요일

재검색: Louis Bachelier

─. 이전 검색: http://hsalbert.blogspot.com/2017/09/louis-bachelier-and-random-walk.html

─. 발췌: Jim Holt, "A Random Walk with Louis Bachelier" (The New York Review of Books, Oct 24 2013)

While he was a doctoral student in mathematics at the Sorbonne, Bachelier derived his financial model by considering the movement of bond prices on the Paris Bourse.

His striking conclusion was that such prices followed what came to be known as a “random walk”: buffeted by unpredictable bits of breaking news, they meandered in a way that was impossible to foretell. This is the nub of what is today called the Efficient Market Hypothesis

─. 발췌: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Bachelier

Dans sa thèse de doctorat intitulée « Théorie de la spéculation », de son directeur de thèse Henri Poincaré, soutenue le 29 mars 1900 à la Sorbonne de Paris, il introduit l'utilisation en finance du mouvement brownien (découvert par le biologiste botaniste Robert Brown), ... ...

─. 발췌: Jean-Michel Courtault, Youri Kabanov, Bernard Bru, Pierre Crepel, Isabelle Lebon, et al.. Louis Bachelier On the centenary of Théorie de la Spéculation. Mathematical Finance, Wiley, 2000, 10 (3),

The date March 29, 1900, should be considered as the birthdate of mathematical finance: on this day French postgraduate student Louis Bachelier successfully defended at Sorbonne his thesis Théorie de la Spéculation. ( ... ... )

After the military service, having in total a four-year interruption of his studies, Louis Bachelier arrived in Paris to continue his university education at Sorbonne. Scarce information is available about these years. ( ... ... )

─. 발췌: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Bachelier

Bachelier arrived in Paris in 1892 to study at the Sorbonne, where his grades were less than ideal.

Defended on March 29, 1900 at the University of Paris,[2] Bachelier's thesis was not well received because it attempted to apply mathematics to an unfamiliar area for mathematicians.[3] However, his instructor, Henri Poincaré, is recorded as having given some positive feedback (though socially insufficient for finding an immediate teaching position in France at that time).

[2]의 출처: https://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/images/f/f1/LouisBACHELIER.pdf

( ... ... ) but his father's death forced him to interrupt his studies. He took them up again at the age of 22, and was successful in obtaining an undistinguished Bachelor's degree in Paris in October 1895. He then defended his doctoral thesis, entitiled “Théorie de la Spéculation” and written under the supervision of Enri Poincaré, on 29 March 1900 ( ... ... )

2018년 7월 2일 월요일

발췌: Charles Peirce and Jastrow

출처 1: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Jastrow

※ 발췌 (excerpt):

( ... ... ) During his doctoral studies at Johns Hopkins University, Jastrow worked with C. S. Peirce on experiments in psychophysics that introduced randomization and blinding for a repeated measures design. ( ... ... )

The Peirce-Jastrow experiment is increasingly recognized as the first properly randomized experiment, which led to psychology (and education) having laboratories for and textbooks on randomized experiments (decades before Ronald A. Fisher).

출처 2: Charles Sander Peirce and Joseph Jastrow (1885). "On the Small Differences in Sensation," First published in Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, 3, 73-83.
Presented 17 October 1884

※ 발췌 (excerpt):

( ... ... ) We have experimented with the pressure sense, observing the proportion of errors among judgments as to which is the greater of two pressure, when it is known that the two are two stated pressures, and the question presented for the decision of the observer is, which is which? From the probability, thus ascertained, of committing an error of a given magnitude, the probable error of a judgment can be calculated according to the mathematical theory of errors.  ( ... ... )

Throughout our observations we noted the degree of confidence with which the observer gave his judgment upon a scale of four degrees, as follows:

0: denoted absence of any preference for one answer over its opposite, so that it seemed nonsensical to answer at all.
1: denoted a distinct leaning to one alternative.
2: denoted some little confidence of being right.
3: denoted as strong a confidence as one would have about such sensations.

( ... ... )

( ... ... ) In the case of Mr. Peirce as subject (it many be noted that Mr. Peirce is left-handed, while Mr. Jastrow is strongly right-handed) the tip of forefinger, and in the case of Mr. Jastrow of the middle finger, of the left hand were used. In addition, a screen served to prevent the subject from having any indications whatever of the movements of the operator. It is hardly necessary to say that that we were fully on guard against unconsciously received indications.

The observation were conducted in the following manner: At each sitting three differential weights were employed. At first we always began and ended with the heaviest, but at a later period the plan was to begin on alternative days with the lightest and heaviest. When we began with the heaviest 25 observations were made with that; then 25 with the middle one, and then 25 with the lightest; this constituted one-half of the sitting. It was completed by three more sets of 25, the order of the weights being reversed. When we began with the lightest the heaviest was used for the third and fourth sets. In this way 150 experiments on each of us were taken at one sitting of two hours.

A pack of 25 cards were taken, 12 red and 13 black, or vice versa, so that in the 50 experiments made at one sitting with a given differential weight, 25 red and 25 black cards should be used. These cards were cut exactly square and their corners were distinguished by holes punched in them so as to indicate the scale of numbers (0, 1, 2, 3) used to designate the degree of confidence of the judgment. The back of these cards were distinguished from their faces. They were, in fact, made of ordinary playing-cards. At the beginning of a set of 25, the pack was well shuffled, and the operator and subject having taken their places, the operator was governed by the color of the successive cards choosing whether he should first diminish weight and then increase it, or vice versa. If the weight was to be first increased and then diminished the operator brought the pressure exerted by the kilogram alone upon the finger of the subject by means of the lever and cam mentioned above, and when the subject said "change" he gentley lowered the differential weight, resting in the small pan, upon the pan of the balance. ( ... ... )

2018년 6월 30일 토요일


출처: Owen Davies, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, 1736-1951,

※ 발췌 (excerpt):

p.287~ :

( ... ... ) In terms of personal sickness, insuranace conver began to have a social impact only from the early 20th century onwards. The first general accident and sickness insurance policy was available in 1900 and proved popular among the self-employed. The growth of the popular insurance market undoubtedly contributed to a general easing of the severity of misfortune in terms of agricultural production and personal health. ( ... ... )

The social transformation that have just been outlined led to the creation of the following five interrelated circumstances, which effectively hampered the mechanisms that had produced accusations of witchcraft within any given community, and ultimately resulted in the declining belief in witchcraft.

Communal instability

Witchcraft accusations were generated in a social environment where there was a considerable degree of long-term social stability, and where there was an intimacy of association in which one person's affairs were the affairs of the whole community. ( ... ... ) Those bonds of intimacy and association that bound the community together in terms of work and leisure, unified it with a sense of a shared past and present, gradually fell away with the decline of the barter economy, the advent of mechanisation, and as a result of the rupture this brought about between all levels of rural society. With the exodus of the young and the death of the old, with the break-up of estates, the increasing turnover of tenancies and the influx of newcomers, the stream of inherited oral tradition ran dry.  ( ... ... )

Decline of self-governance and the intrusion of state and local government

( ... ... )

p. 294~ :

The experience of misfortune has changed profoundly in our predominantly urban, welfare society. Once the state began to provide more securities in life, such as pensions, unemployment benefits, national insurance and subsidies, and with the extension of universal suffrage and basic human rights, not only was the scope and impact of misfortune mitigated, but blame for the experience of misfortune began to be apportioned to the failures of these welfare mechanisms. In our modern social climate, people are far more aware of the national and global factors influencing their lives in political, economic and environmental terms. While financial hardship no longer results from the death of a pig or a cow, for instance, the reduction of European subsidies constitutes a serious case of misfortune for farmers. As a result, the bureaucrats in Brussels rather than village witches are now the scapegoats in farming communities. Nevertheless, although the actions of the mass of the people are no longer strongly bound by occult forces, they continue to maintain a variety of observances to ward off misfortune. However, such practices are no longer employed against individuals who emanate supernatural malign influence, but against an impersonal, abstract conception of bad luck. Many people also retain a fascination with the professed ability to interpret occult forces. The belief in fortune-telling continues, for instance, because it functions as a means of assuaging personal insecurities about the future. The expression of these insecurities may have changed over the centuries, but the fundamental fear of being hurt, emotionally or financially, will always lead people to seek comfort in the realm of magic.

In other words, the popular belief in the supernatural has continued by a process of adaptation to changing perceptions of the world. Thus the inexplicable, violent movement of objects, supernatural stone-throwing and bed-rocking, which were once attributed to witchcraft, are now seriously explained in terms of poltergeist activity. Is the former explanation any more 'irrational' than the latter? And although few people still believe in fairies and fairy abduction, many now believe in UFOs, egg-headed aliens, and alien abduction. Stories of such encounters are probably as widely deliberated in modern mass culture as stories of fairies were in the old rural culture. ( ... ... )

2018년 6월 26일 화요일

발췌 2: 대실 해밋// Flitcraft parable

※ 발췌: 출처, "G In The Air," in his Maltese Falcon

─ 1. 우화의 시작:

( ... ... )

A man named Flitcraft had left his real-estate-office, in Tacoma, to go to luncheon one day and had never returned. He did not keep an engagement to play golf after four that afternoon, though he had taken the initiative in making the engagement less than half an hour before he went out to luncheon. His wife and children never saw him again. His wife and he were supposed to be on the best of terms. He had two children, boys, one five and the other three. He owned his house in a Tacoma suburb, a new Packard, and the rest of the appurtenances of successful American living.

( ... ... )

─ 2. 중간:
(Spade put the telephoe down and told her: He'll be up in a few minutes.) Well, that was in 1922. In 1927 I was with one of the big detective agencies in Seattle. Mrs. Flitcraft came in and told us somebody had seen a man in Spokane who looked a lot like her husband. I went over there. It was Flitcraft, all right. He had been living in Spokane for a couple of years as Charles--that was his first name--Pierce. He had an automobile-business that was netting him twenty or twenty-five thousand a year, a wife, a baby son, owned his home in a Spokane suburb, and usually got away to play golf after four in the afternoon during the season.

Spade had not been told very definitely what to do when he found Flitcraft. They talked in Spade's room at the Davenport. Flitcraft had no feeling of guilt. He had left his first family well provided for, and what he had done seemed to him perfectly reasonable. The only thing that bothered him was a doubt that he could make that reasonableness clear to Spade. He had never told anybody his story before, and thus had not had to attempt to make its reasonableness explicit. He tried now.

I got it all right, Spade told Brigid O'Shaughnessy, but Mrs. Flitcraft never did. She thought it was silly. Maybe it was. Anyway, it came out all right. She didn't want any scandal, and, after the trick he had played on her--the way she looked at it--she didn't want him. So they were divorced on the quiet and everything was swell all around.

Here's what had happened to him. Going to lunch he passed an office-building that was being put up--just the skeleton. A beam or something fell eight or ten stories down and smacked the sidewalk alongside him. It brushed pretty close to him, but didn't touch him, though a piece of the sidewalk was chipped off and flew up and hit his cheek. It only took a piece of skin off, but he still had the scar when I saw him. He rubbed it with his finger--well, affectionately--when he told me about it. He was scared stiff of course, he said, but he was more shocked than really frightened. He felt like somebody had taken the lid off life and let him look at the works.

Flitcraft had been a good citizen and a good husband and father, not by any outer compulsion, but simply because he was a man who was most comfortable in step with his surroundings. He had been raised that way. The people he knew were like that. The life he knew was a clean orderly sane responsible affair. Now a falling beam had shown him that life was fundamentally none of these things. He, the good citizen-husband-father, could be wiped out between office and restaurant by the accident of a falling beam. He knew then that men died at haphazard like that, and lived only while blind chance spared them.

─ 3. (2)의 연속:
It was not, primarily, the injustice of it that disturbed him: he accepted that after the first shock. What disturbed him was the discovery that in sensibly ordering his affairs he had got out of step, and not into step, with life. He said he knew before he had gone twenty feet from the fallen beam that he would never know peace again until he had adjusted himself to this new glimpse of life. By the time he had eaten his luncheon he had found his means of adjustment. Life could be ended for him at random by a falling beam: he would change his life at random by simply going away. He loved his family, he said, as much as he supposed was usual, but he knew he was leaving them adequately provided for, and his love for them was not of the sort that would make absence painful.

─ 4. (3)에서 이어짐. 우화의 끝:

He went to Seattle that afternoon, Spade said, and from there by boat to San Francisco. For a couple of years he wandered around and then drifted back to the Northwest, and settled in Spokane and got married. His second wife didn't look like the first, but they were more alike than they were different. You know, the kind of women that play fair games of golf and bridge and like new salad-recipes. He wasn't sorry for what he had done. It seemed reasonable enough to him. I don't think he even knew he had settled back naturally into the same groove he had jumped out of in Tacoma. But that's the part of it I always liked. He adjusted himself to beams falling, and then no more of them fell, and he adjusted himself to them not falling.

2018년 6월 25일 월요일

발췌: 대실 해밋// Flitcraft parable

─ 1. 이전 검색: http://hsalbert.blogspot.com/2017/11/flitcraft-parable.html

─ 2. 발췌 (excerpt): 출처, "G In The Air," in his Maltese Falcon

Spade had not been told very definitely what to do when he found Flitcraft. They talked in Spade's room at the Davenport. Flitcraft had no feeling of guilt. He had left his first family well provided for, and what he had done seemed to him perfectly reasonable. The only thing that bothered him was a doubt that he could make that reasonableness clear to Spade. He had never told anybody his story before, and thus had not had to attempt to make its reasonableness explicit. He tried now.

이야기의 이 부분에서 스페이드가 전하는 이야기:
  • 플릿크래프는 아무런 죄책삼을 느끼지 않았다. 
  • 그는 자신이 이전 가족을 떠났을 때 그들이 넉넉히 누리고 살고 있었다는 것을 지적했다. 가족을 떠났던 자신의 행동은 전적으로 합리적이었다고 생각하는 듯했다. 
  • 플릿크래프트가 불편해했던 유일한 점은 자신이 느꼈던 그 합리성을 스페이드에게 분명히 전할 수 있을지 미심쩍었다[자신이 없었다, doubt]는 점이었다. 
  • 플릿크래프는 이전에 한 번도 그 이야기를 꺼냈던 적이 없었던지라 자신의 그 행동이 합리적인 것이었음을 분명히 표현하려고 시도해야 했던 적이 없었다.

─ 3. 한편 이야기의 이 부분을 다른 저자가 다음과 같이 묘사한다.
Flitcraft/Pierce expressed no apparent remorse, pointing out to Spade that his previous family was well provided for. Nonetheless, Flitcraft/Pierce was anxious to relay to Spade an explanation, as he'd never told anyone what happened. (Chapter 1, in Mihir Desai, Wisdom of Finance)

─. 4 형용사 anxious에 대한 용례 설명

     Usage Note (American Heritage 5th edn):
Anxious has a long history of use as a synonym for eager, but some prefer that anxious be used only to describe those who are worried or uneasy, as in the sentence He's anxious about his upcoming surgery. The acceptability of anxious to mean eager has been increasing, however. In our 1999 survey of the Usage Panel, 47 percent approved of the sentence We are anxious to see the new show of British sculpture at the museum, whereas in 2014, this sentence was acceptable to 57 percent of panelists. The acceptability was higher for this usage in a sentence about a situation with a tinge of uneasiness: After a four-hour bus ride, the children were anxious to get outside (acceptable to 69 percent of the Panel in 1999 and 78 percent in 2014). Although resistance to the use of anxious to mean eager is waning, writers should be aware that there are still those who frown upon using the word in situations where no anxiety is present.
요약: anxious to V는 초조와 불안이 개입되지 않는 상황에서 열렬한 욕구/욕망만을 표현하는 데 쓰지 않는 것이 좋다.

2018년 6월 24일 일요일

Dic: dismiss // dismiss something as something (in meanings of disregard, discount, reject)

대다수 사전들이 dismiss의 대표적 용례 하나로 'dismiss something as [화자가 보기에 부정적인 무엇]'을 꼽는데, 적지 않은 영어권 작가들이 'dismiss something as [화자가 보기에 긍정적인 무엇]'의 구문을 'something이 긍정적인 무엇임을 인정하지 않다/일축하다/묵살하다/무시하다/거부하다'의 용도로 쓴다. 

최근의 예를 보자면, 이런 문장:
  • There are many who dismiss markets as mechanisms for establishing true values.
  • 다른 예가 더 있을 터인데 ...

다음 문장에 등장한 did not show 와 as의 관계도 이와 비슷하게 작문된 예다. 여기서 'did not show'는 'disregard'와 비슷한 뜻이다.
  • Before long, the president would want a way of measuring the economy that did indicate its total capacity to produce but did not show additional government expenditure on armaments as reducing the nation's output.  [출처]

하여, 사전의 풀이와 예문을 다시 찾아 적어본다. 사람 헷갈리게 만드니까...


─. If you dismiss something, you decide or say that it is not important enough for you to think about or consider. = discount. [V n as n, V n]

─. to refuse to consider someone's idea, opinion etc, because you think it is not serious, true or important.

─. To refuse to accept or recognize; reject.

─. To reject someone or something by viewing or designating it in a particular way.
  • Mr Wakeham dismissed the reports as speculation.
  • I would certainly dismiss any allegations of impropriety by the Labour Party.
  • He just laughted and dismissed my proposal as unrealistic.
  • It's an idea that shouldn't be dismissed out of hand (= dismissed immediately and completely).
  • dismissed the claim as highly improbable.
  • The studio may dismiss me as a dumb blonde, but i'll show them how versatile an actress I can be!
  • The candidate dismissed the negative report about him as a total fabrication.

─ 2. If you dismiss something from your mind, you stop thinking about it. = banish. [V n from n, V n]

─. To stop considering; rid one's mid of; dispel
  • I dismissed him from my mind.
  • "It's been a lovely day," she said, dismissing the episode.
  • dismissed all thoughts of running for office.

재검색:// conceptual arc에서 arc는 '틀(frame, framework)'처럼 꽉 짜인 것이 아니다

※ 발췌 (excerpts):

출처 1: Conceptual Structures: Applications, Implementation and Theory (1995)

2.2 A new approach

We propose a new approach to conceptual clustering, called COING, which consists in searching a concept hierarchy of a set of objects through a space of concept hierarchies ^explicitly^ built: the Generalization Space. This approach is based on a representation of complex objects using conceptual graphics [28]. We will first introduce some terminology and an example used along this article.

Knowledge representation. Our work being related to the MSG developed by Mineau [25], we have considered the same restrictions on the conceptual graphs: existential graphs where only binary relations are used. Such graphs may be decomposed without ambiguity as a set of triplets 〈concept 1, relation, concept 2. We call conceptual arc or arc such a triplet of a conceptual graph. Throughout this paper, we will use as an example a set of objects to be clustered (see figure 2). This set of objects, taken from [14], provides a good example of an application of our approach in spite of the fact that the objects do not require the full expression power of the conceptual graphs formalism. In this example, we represent each object using conceptual graphs; figure 3 presents the representation of an object.

The term ^concept^ will be used within two contexts:

 ─ an ^acquired concept^ in the conceptual clustering paradigm designs the entity "cluster + cluster description",

 ─ a ^domain concept^ corresponds to a concept of the conceptual graphs formalism.

( ... ... )

출처 2: Abstraction, Reformulation, and Approximation (2003)

A conceptual arc is a triplet: [concept(s)] → (relation) → [concept(d)], where (relation) corresponds to a relation between [concept(s)] and [concept(d)]. A conceptual graph is a graph composed of a set of conceptual arcs. For more information about conceptual graphs, the reader should refer to [25] [5].

Figure 1 below presents an example of a house description using conceptual graphs. The triplet [Window] → (color) → [White] is a conceptual arc. This example is used throughout the article to illustrate the algorithms presented.

출처 3: Character Arc, Conceptual Arc and Thematic Arc: Which Should You Use? (Michael Lee | Script Mag, 2016년 5월 5일)

There are suddenly a lot of people coming out against character arcs. Some critics and writers take issue with the notion that every script requires a character arc. They site examples of very successful movies where the main character doesn't undergo a big, dramatic change like the modern classic ^Ghostbusters^ and the recent ^The Martian^. And these people have a point to an extent.

( ... ... )

Does the world see him differently at the end?  This is a gray area. Often characters are defined by what they think and feel and what they do. But you can consider their relationship with the rest of the world as part of their character. So what if that relationship is the thing that changes? It depends. What does the writer consider more important; the reason why society has changed its attitude towards the character? That would suggest a more thematic or conceptual arc for the story. But if what's important is how the change in attitude affects the character then we're back to the character arc.

[니체, 도덕의 계보학] 제2논문 8절의 재검토

─. 이전 검색과 발췌:

  • 번역서 1의 발췌 : 《선악의 저편·도덕의 계보》 김정현 옮김. 책세상 펴냄 (2002/2006)

─. 번역서 2: 《도덕의 계보학: 하나의 논박서》 홍성광 옮김. 연암서가 펴냄 (2011/2017)

※ 그중 제2논문 〈'죄', '양심의 가책' 그리고 이와 유사한 것〉의 8절의 발췌:
우리의 원래 연구로 되돌아가 본다면, 죄책감과 개인적인 의무감은 이미 우리가 살펴본 바처럼, 존재하는 가장 오래되고 가장 근원적인 개인 관계에, 즉 구매자와 판매자, 채권자와 채무자 사이의 관계에 그 기원을 두었다. 즉 여기에서 우선 개인이 개인과 상대하였으며, 여기에서 우선 개인이 개인과 서로 견주었던 것이다.

아무리 저급한 문명이라 하더라도 이러한 관계가 약간이나마 드러나지 않은 문명이 발견되지 않은 적은 아직 없었다. 값을 정하고 가치를 측정하며 등가물을 생각해 내서 교환하는 일─이러한 것은 어떠한 의미에서는 사고 그 자체라 할 수 있을 정도로 인간의 가장 원초적 사고를 지배하고 있었다. 여기에서 가장 오래된 종류의 명민성이 개발되었고, 마찬가지로 여기에서 인간의 자긍심이나 다른 동물에 대한 우월감의 싹이 최초로 키워진 것으로 추측할 수 있다. 아마 '인간Mensch(manas)'이라는 우리의 단어 또한 바로 이러한 자부심 같은 것을 표현하는 것이리라. 인간이란 가치를 재고 평가하고 측정하는 존재로, ‘평가하는 동물 자체’로 특징지어졌다.

구매와 판매는 그 심리적인 부속물과 아울러 심지어 어떠한 종류의 사회 조직이나 사회 집단의 시초보다도 더 오래된 것이다. 오히려 교환, 계약, 죄, 권리, 의무, 보상 등의 싹이 되는 감정은, 힘과 힘을 비교하고 재며 헤아려보는 습관과 더불어, 개인의 권리라는 가장 초보적인 형태에서 가장 조야하고 가장 원시적인 공동체 복합체(이것을 다른 유사한 복합체와 비교해 볼 때)로 옮아갔다. 이리하여 인간의 눈은 이제 이러한 관점에 초점을 맞추게 되었다. 움직이기는 어렵지만 일단 움직이기 시작하면 단호하게 같은 방향으로 계속 나아가는 고대 인류의 사고에 특유한 저 굼뜬 일관성으로,  사람들은 곧바로 '어느 사물에나 가격이 있다. 모든 것에는 대가가 치러질 수 있다'고 뭉뚱그려 일반화하게 되었다. 이것은 정의에 관한 가장 오래되고 가장 순진한 도덕규범이며, 지상에서의 온갖 '선량함', 온갖 '공정성', 온갖 '선의', 온갖 '객관성'의 시작이었던 것이다. 이러한 최초의 단계에서 정의란 거의 동등한 힘을 가진 사람들끼리 서로 타협하고 조정을 통해 다시 '합의'를 보려는 선의이며, 그리고 보다 힘이 떨어지는 사람들에 관련해서는 그들끼리 조정에 이르도록 강요하는 선의이다.

─. 위 번역서 1 중  같은 부분(제2논문  8절)의 발췌:
우리의 연구 과정을 다시 시작해본다면, 죄의 감정과 개인적인 의무의 감정은 이미 우리가 보아왔듯이, 그 기원을 존재하는 가장 오래되고 근원적인 개인 관계에, 즉 파는 자와 사는 자, 채권자와 채무자의 관계에 두고 있다 : 여기에서 비로소 개인이 개인과 상대했으며, 여기에서 비로소 개인인 스스로를 개인과 견주었다. 이러한 관계를 이미 인정할 수 없을 정도로 저급한 문명은 발견된 적이 없다. 값을 정하고 가치를 측정하고 등가물을 생각해내며 교환하는 것─이것은 어떤 의미에서 사유라고 할 수 있을 만한 인간의 원초적 사유를 미리 지배하고 있었다 : 여기에서 가장 오래된 종류의 명민함이 길러졌고, 마찬가지로 여기에서 인간이 다른 동물에 대해 가진 긍지우월감의 싹도 최초로 얻었다고 추정할 수 있을 것이다. 아마 '인간manas'이라는 우리의 용어도 바로 이러한 자기 감정의 그 무엇인가를 표현하는 것이리라 : 인간이란 가치를 재고 평가하고 측정하는 존재, ‘평가하는 동물 자체’로 묘사된다. 사고 파는 것은 심리적인 부속물과 더불어, 심지어는 어떤 사회 조직 형태나 집단의 시초보다 더 오래된 것이다 : 오히려 교환, 계약, 죄, 권리, 의무, 보상 등의 감정의 싹은, 동시에 힘과 힘을 비교하고 측정하고 계산하는 습관과 더불어, 개인의 권리라는 가장 초보적 형식에서 이제 가장 조야하고 원시적인 사회 복합체 (다른 유사한 복합체와 비교하여)로 ^이행^했다. 눈에 이제 이러한 관점에 초점을 맞추게 되었다 : 움직이기는 어렵지만 일단 움직이기만 하면 단호하게 같은 방향으로 계속 나아가는 고대인의 사유에 특유한 저 둔중한 일관성으로, 곧 "어느 사물이나 그 가격을 지닌다. 모든 것은 대가로 지불될 수 있다"는 중요한 일반화에 이른 것이다.─ 이것은 정의의 가장 오래되고 소박한 도덕의 규준이며, 지상에서의 모든 '호의', 모든 '공정', 모든 '선한 의지', 모든 '객관성'의 발단이다. 이러한 최초 단계에서의 정의란 거의 동등한 힘을 지니고 있는 사람들 사이에서 서로 타협하고 조정을 통해 다시 '합의'하려는 좋은 의지이다.─ 그리고 힘이 열등한 자에 관해 말하자면, 그들 상호간에 조정할 수 있도록 강제하는 선한 의지인 것이다.─

─. 위 영문 텍스트의 같은 부분 발췌:
To resume the path of our enquiry, the feeling of guilt, of personal obligation has, as we saw, its origin in the oldest and most primitive personal relationship there is, in the relationship between seller and buyer, creditor and debtor. Here for the first time one person moved up against another person, here an individual measured himself against another individual. We have found no civilization still at such a low level that something of this relationship is not already perceptible. To set prices, to measure values, to think up equivalencies, to exchange things—that preoccupied man’s very first thinking to such a degree that in a certain sense it’s what thinking itself is. Here the oldest form of astuteness was bred; here, too, we can assume are the first beginnings of man’s pride, his feeling of pre-eminence in relation to other animals. Perhaps our word “man” (manas) continues to express directly something of this feeling of the self: the human being describes himself as a being which assesses values, which values and measures, as the “inherently calculating animal.” Selling and buying, together with their psychological attributes, are even older than the beginnings of any form of social organizations and groupings; out of the most rudimentary form of personal legal rights the budding feeling of exchange, contract, guilt, law, duty, and compensation was instead first transferred to the crudest and earliest social structures (in their relationships with similar social structures), along with the habit of comparing power with power, of measuring, of calculating. The eye was now adjusted to this perspective, and with that awkward consistency characteristic of thinking in more ancient human beings, hard to get started but then inexorably moving forward in the same direction, people soon reached the great generalization: “Each thing has its price, everything can be paid off”—the oldest and most naive moral principle of justice, the beginning of all “good nature,” all “fairness,” all “good will,” all “objectivity” on earth. Justice at this first stage is good will among those approximately equal in power to come to terms with each other, to “come to an agreement” again with each other by compensation—and in relation to those less powerful, to compel them to arrive at some settlement among themselves.—

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