2015년 7월 28일 화요일

Dic: as much

CF. as much as

  • I suspected as much when I heard.
  • I knew he'd fail─I said as much at the time.
  • Go on, lend me the money─you know I'd do as much for you.
  • I thought as much. 
  • She said as much.
  • You're waiting for a woman-I thought as much.

△ exactly that.
△ If you say that you thought/expected/said as much, it means that something bad that you thought/expected/said would happen has happened.
△ the same
△ almost the same.
△ You use as much in expressions such as `I thought as much' and `I guessed as much' after you have just been told something and you want to say that you already believed or expected it to be true.

... Collins, CALD, American Heritage. COBUILD


The debate should be as much as making each type of actorㅡgovernment or privateㅡhave their private and social returns aligned better, as much as it is about finding the right mix of government and market to solve the problems. 
  • 1. The debate should be as much. 2. (How much?) 3. (It should be) as much as making each type of actor have their private and social returns aligned better. 
  • 1. And the debate should be as much. 2. (How much?) 3. (It should be) as much as it is about finding the right mix of government and market to solve the problems.

Dic / Usages: as much as

1. The same quantity as. As with as many(def.2), the meaning of much as a large amount here is qualified by what follows. For ex.,

  • Please help yourself to as much of the meant as you want indicates whatever amount you wish.

2. [Also however much, much as] Even though, no matter how much. For ex.,
  • As much as I hate to, I mush stay home tonight.
  • However much it hurts, you ought to admit you were wrong.
  • Much as Karen would love to see us, she can't get out of her prior commitment.

3. [Also, so much as] In effect, nearly the same as. For ex.,
  • Mom as much as told Jane she couldn't go.
  • The clerk so much as accused the customer of shoplifting.

    These expressions intensify the meaning of the verb and indicate that the action is unexpected.

CF. Other randomly chosen examples:
  • This has been as much a journey of overcoming obstacles, reaching out to former members and finding forgiveness as much as it is about telling a story. ... Link
  • Coming out is about self-acceptance as much as it is about self-discovery. ... Link
  • A simplified Christmas isn't about circumstances as much as it is about focus. ... Link
  • If it is possible, as much as it is up to you, be at peace with all men. ... Link
  • This is yours as much as it is mine.  ... Link
  • The biological object is made of time as much as it is made of space and matter.  ... Link
  • St. Paul home renovation is as much as making things new as is about preserving the past.  ... Link 
  • Signing your name to something like this is as much as making a pact with the devil himself!  ... Link
  • Fair representation is as much as making sure there is discussion and reference to artists that make work...not just the Gladwells and Hensons. Come off it, we can aspire to that.  ... Link
  • But here's how I approach it: This is, as much as making an extraordinary cake, a hobby.  ... Link
  • It doesn’t matter what the goal is, as much as making the process of working towards it meaningful. ... What your goal is doesn’t matter as much as whether the process of working toward it is meaningful to you.  ... Link
  • Every day is a chance to start new, begin again, move forward or change trajectory. New You is all about wellness, inside and out. I love standing on my head as much as making skin care products, as much as making music... ... Link
  • As I know they take as much pride and as much joy as making their drums, as much as I love playing them!  ... Link
  • It's probably not as much as weight loss, as much as it is about the muscle toning[,]  but I still have to lose weight. ...  Link
  • we need to embrace the maxim that development is as much about the development of people as much as it is about business and as much as it is about place, and as much as it is about environment. Yet we readily fall into the trap of valuing what we measure rather than measuring what we value.  ... Link
  • I don't think this is as much as a character driven story as much as it is about the whole situation...  ...  Link
  • It underscores that communication is as much a science as an art, as much process as it is about outcomes.  ... Link

CF. Concessive "as much as" and "much as" Which came first?

     Related: "Much though" vs "much as",
                Use of 'Much as',
                Using "as much as" at the start of sentence

2015년 7월 27일 월요일

Usages: the wonder is lost

1. https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25564-art-takes-a-shot-at-the-moon/

Visions of a new space race dominate a group show at the BALTIC 39 gallery in the UK, but sometimes the wonder of space is lost amid the practicalities. 

2. http://www.mindfulwalker.com/beyond-gotham/the-glorious-palette-of-spring-green
Perhaps when our beings long most for brighter color after a long winter, nature’s reward is most vibrant and enticing. Somehow by summer our eyes become quite accustomed to a green world, and we may take it for granted. As author and naturalist Hal Borland wrote, “The big leaf of any tree is so familiar that the wonder of it is lost. See it young, and that wonder is new again.” 

3. http://gurianinstitute.com/he-wonder-of-the-female-brain/
“When parents don’t fully understand their children much of the wonder of parenting is lost.

4. http://www.familyhorizons.net/html/understanding_marriage.html
As western culture forgets its roots, the wonder of marriage is lost. Cheap and shallow connections, involving exploitation, insecurity, betrayal and pain then become the norm.

5. http://justpunchtheclock.com/about-2/
The wonder of discovery is lost as we grow older. Creativity is stifled by time and convention. My children are seven and one. They are just starting out, experiencing Something New every day, from the majesty of volcanoes to the exhilarating freedom of being able to put one foot in front of the other. I’d like to rediscover some of that wonder.

6. http://www.engadget.com/2014/08/21/the-think-tank-the-desirability-of-world-changing-game-events/
A static world has only one story, and once you've been through that, the wonder of discovery is lost. A game that is constantly evolving through world-changing events is more alive, more immersive. Sure, I totally miss "what used to be," but that just lends itself to the feelings of nostalgia and adds oomph to the personal stories of "back in the old days."

... ...

2015년 7월 21일 화요일

[다시 대충 훑어보기] nation, nation-state

※ 참고: [참고] 국민국가, 민족국가

※ 발췌 (excerpts):

자료 1: 월러스틴이 말하는 국민국가(nation-state)

출전. 이매뉴얼 월러스틴 <<월러스틴의 세계체제 분석>> 이광근 옮김. 당대, 2005. 3. 215쪽
원저는 <<World-systems Analysis : An Introduction 2004, Duke Uni. Press.

註 : 옮긴이는 nation-state를 민족국가라 옮기고, 또 nation은 민족으로 옮기고 있으나 이런 경우 그 국가는 단일민족으로 구성된다는 혼동을 줄 수 있으므로 국민국가/국민이 좋을 듯하다. 이런 사례는 신행선이 에르네스트 르낭 <<국민이란 무엇인가?>>를 옮길 때도 감지되었는데 신행선은 이를 <<민족이란 무엇인가>>로 했다. 이에 따라 이광근 옮김 민족국가는 국민국가, 민족은 국민으로 바꾸었음을 밝힌다.

자료 2: nation-state를 뭐라고 번역해야 옳을까?

Nation-State는 왕조국가와 달리, 모든 권력이 국민에게 있다는 의미를 함의한다. 그런 의미에서 국부나 국모를 전제하는 국가라는 개념은 nation-state라는 개념의 원뜻과 어울리지 않는다.

자료 3: Nation─국가? 국민? 민족? 말하는 넘 맘이다.

( ... ... ) Nation이라고 다를 게 없다. 말하는 넘이 국가, 국민, 민족 중 하나를 강조하는 말이라고 주장하면 끝이다. 대개 듣는 넘은 그런 주장할 권리가 없다. 말은 화자 중심이기 때문이다. 근데 대체적으로, 평균으로 퉁치면 어느 정도는 세 가지 개념을 모두 아우르는 표현이라 할 수 있다. 평균적으로 정의한다면 문화와 언어, 인종 등 이질적인 집단과 확연히 구별되는 특징을 공유하는 ‘우리가 남이가’ 집단을 가리킨다.

반만년 단일 민족 역사를 자랑하는 한국인인 탓에 헷갈리는 거다. 세상에 이런 나라 흔치 않다ㅡ.ㅡ

달랑 우리말 한 단어로 대응시킬 수 없는 단어이긴 state도 마찬가지지만, nation과 비교하면 앞서 언급한 특징의 공유를 전제로 하지 않는 정치권력 기구를 중심으로 한 국가의 상태라 이해하면 된다. ( ... ... ) 오늘날 영국은 잉글랜드, 웨일스, 스코틀랜드, 북아일랜드라는 이질 집단, 즉 4대 nations가 하나의 state를 이루고 있어 nation state라 부를 수가 없다. 대영 제국이라는 말을 쓰는 건 제국(empire)이라는 개념이 복수의 nations를 아우르기 때문이다.  ( ... ... ) Nationalism도 민족주의든, 국민주의든, 국가주의든 이 말을 쓰는 넘이 역사적 소양이 어느 정도냐에 따라 다른 말이 될 수도, 틀린 말이 될 수도 있다. 역사적 시기와 문맥에 따라 변신하는 고무줄 단어이기 때문이다. ( ... ... ) 오늘날 영국은 잉글랜드, 웨일스, 스코틀랜드, 북아일랜드라는 이질 집단, 즉 4대 nations가 하나의 state를 이루고 있어 nation state라 부를 수가 없다. 대영 제국이라는 말을 쓰는 건 제국(empire)이라는 개념이 복수의 nations를 아우르기 때문이다.

도시 국가를 city state라고 한다. 고대 아테네와 같은 도시 국가(city state)는 그리스라는 전체 nation의 일부였다. 전체 중 일부에 불과한 도시 국가 차원을 넘어서서 state의 성격 자체가 nation 전체로 확대된 국가가 nation state라 할 수 있다.

Nationalism도 민족주의든, 국민주의든, 국가주의든 이 말을 쓰는 넘이 역사적 소양이 어느 정도냐에 따라 다른 말이 될 수도, 틀린 말이 될 수도 있다. 역사적 시기와 문맥에 따라 변신하는 고무줄 단어이기 때문이다.

자료 4: 우리는 어떻게 바뀌고 있는가? (존 브록만 엮음, 최완규 옮김, 책읽는수요일 펴냄, 2013)

오늘날 사이버스페이스의 정보 고속도로를 달리는 난 마치 책으로 대변되는 인류 기술이나 민족국가nation state (nation은 화자의 의도에 따라 국가, 국민, 민족 중 하나를 강조하는 말이 될 수 있으며, 어느 정도는 세 가지 개념을 모두 아우르는 표현이다. 광의로 보면, 문화와 언어, 인종 등 이질적인 집단과 확연히 구별되는 특징을 공유하는 집단을 가리킨다. 우리말 한 단어로 대응시킬 수 없는 단어이긴 state도 마찬가지이지만 nation과 비교하면 앞서 언급한 특징의 공유를 전제로 하지 않는 정치권력 기구를 중심으로 한 국가의 상태를 뜻한다. 따라서 통상적으로 지배적인 동질 집단이 한 국가를 이루는 nation state를 민족국가 또는 국민국가로 번역하고, 어느 용어가 맞느냐를 두고 여전히 논란이 많지만, 역사 및 지리적 배경에 따라 그 함의는 크게 달라질 수밖에 없다. 가령 오늘날 영국은 잉글랜드, 웨일스, 스코틀랜드, 북아일랜드라는 이질 집단 즉 4개 nation이 하나의 state를 이루고 있어 nation state라는 정의에 어울리지 않는다. nation이라는 말을 민족으로 번역하기는 했지만 단일 민족에 익숙한 한국인이 느끼는 '민족'과 nation은 사뭇 다른 개념일 수 있다는 사실에 유념해야 한다─옮긴이)로 대변되는 인류 관계의 한계가 무색할 정도로 ...


2015년 7월 19일 일요일

[발췌: 정성호 지음] 화교 (살림, 2004)

출처: 정성호 지음. 화교. 살림 펴냄. 2004.
자료: 구글도서

※ 발췌 (excerpt):

"바닷물 닿는 곳에 화교가 있다" "연기 나는 곳에 화교가 있다" "한 그루 야자나무 밑에는 세 명의 화교가 있다" 등의 표현은 중국인이 해외에 폭넓게 분포하고 있음을 나타낸다. 화교(華僑)는 일반적으로 중국 본토 이외의 국가나 지역에서 거주하고 있는 중국계의 사람들을 가리킨다. 여기서 '華'는 주국을 의미하며, '僑'는 타국에서의 거주 내지는 임시 거주를 의미한다. 그러나 중국 국적을 가진 사람들 중 다수가 현지 국적으로 바뀌고 2·3세가 늘어남에 따라 지금은 현지 국적을 가진 사람이 대다수를 차지하게 되었다. 이들을 화교와 구별하여 화인(華人)이라 부르기도 한다.

화인이란 혈통으로는 중국인이지만 중국에 대한 정치적 충성심을 가진 중국인이 아니다. 이들은 현지 국적을 취득해 현지 국가에서 경제활동을 한다는 의미에서 화인으로 지칭된다. 영어로는 'Overseas Chinese' 혹은 'Ethnic Chinese'로 불린다.

2015년 7월 18일 토요일

Mirror: sample sentences

attachment for keeping the context:

It does not seem to be an accident that the worst growth disasters ( ... ) are almost all in sub-Saharan Africa. It does not seem to an accident that those growth stars, the Gang of Four and China (and Japan in earlier decades) are all in East Asia. ( ... )
Another sign that regional growth is an important part of the action is that regions move together from one decade to the next. For example, Latin American nations in the 1980s collectively had a famous "lost decade." A regional credit bubble had burst: global banks had given the region a supply of easy credit at low interest rates in the 1970s, then interest rates went up and credit was cut off in the 1980s.
A sensible principle for attribution for national growth performance is that a nation does not get special recognition if its performance is just at the average. It would be foolish for a nation to claim credit for growth that is the same as the average for its region. If a nation is above (or below) these averages, then we can talk about special recognition for the nation's growth performance.

* * *

This principle further reduces the share of growth variation explained by permanent national differences. Some of the variation in decade growth rates explained by national differences was really explained by regional differences. Recalculating, we now get only a little more than a tenth of the variation in decade growth rates explained by national differences. Regional growth differences explain roughly as much of growth as national growth differences do.

1. "was ... explained": the past tense describing a fact or action already done.

2. "now get" and "explain": present tenses describing permanent truths contained in the fact or action already done.

3. "Regional growth differences explain roughly as much of growth as national growth differences do."
  • The part of growth explained by national differences is almost all explained by regional growth differences.

2015년 7월 12일 일요일

[발췌: W. Easterly's] Benevolent Autocrats (2011)

출처: William Easterly, Benevolent Autocrats, NYU/NBER/BREAD, August 2011
자료: http://williameasterly.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/BenevolentAutocrats.pdf

※ 발췌 (excerpts):

Abstract: Many high growth episodes are associated with autocrats. A large literature attributes this to the higher variance of growth rates under autocracy than under democracy. The literature offers alternative explanations for this stylized fact:

  • (1) leaders don't matter under democracy, but good and bad leaders under autocracy cause high and low growth,
  • (2) leaders don't matter autocracy either, but good and bad autocratic systems cause greater extremes of high or low growth,
  • or (3) democracy does better than autocracy at reducing variance from shocks from outside the political system.

This paper details further the stylized facts to test these distinctions.

  • Inconsistent with (1), the variance of growth within the terms of leaders swamps the variance across leaders, and more so under autocracy than under democracy. 
  • Country effects under autocracy are also overwhelmed by within-country variance, inconsistent with (2).
  • Explanation (3) fits the stylized fats the best of the three alternatives. 

The empirical variance of growth literature has also identified many correlates of autocracy as equally plausible determinants of high growth variance. Stories of benevolent autocrats (either explanation (1) or (2)) have not held up well in the contemporary empirical growth literature. Cognitive and political biases help explain why benevolent stories nevertheless remain popular in policy discussions.

( ... ... )

Now, to analyze the variance for autocracies and democracies a bit more formally, consider a standard decomposition of the annual growth rates for country i and period t into a cross-country(µ_i) and within-country (ε_it) component for a panel of countries, along with year dummies (γt): ( ... ... )

[발췌: W. Easterly's] Fiscal Policy, Debt Crises, and Economic Growth (2015)

출처: ... , 2015.
자료: http://williameasterly.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Central-Bank-of-Chile-Book-Chap.pdf

※ 발췌 (excerpt):

A well known property of growth rates both within countries and across countries is regression to the mean. Regression to the mean is not necessarily 100 percent, as there could be permanent changes in growth rates within countries and permanent growth differences between countries. However, a vast body of evidence suggests these permanent changes or differences are small relative to the total variation of growth rates, so mean reversion is quantitatively large.

To see the importance of mean reversion in the example just discussed, the following two graphs show it within the Eurozone countries and within the US alone. Both graphs show the change in growth has a negative relation to the initial growth rates. Above average growth regress partly back towards the mean, while the below average growth regresses upward towards the mean.

Anther way to state regression to the mean is there is low persistence in growth rates, and growth accelerations are temporary. This has received abundant confirmation in a wide variety of panel data sets on GDP growth rates (Easterly, Kremer, Pritchett, and Summers 1993, Hausmann, Rodrik, and Pritchett 2005).

( ... ... )

2015년 7월 11일 토요일

[발췌] Good Policy or Good Luck? Country's Growth Performance and Temporary Shocks

출처:  .... , NBER Working Paper, 1993
자료: http://www.nber.org/papers/w4474

※ 발췌 (excerpt):

Much of the new growth literature stresses country characteristics as the dominant determinant of growth performance. ( ... ) This paper presents a fact suggesting the emphasis on country characteristics is misguided: growth rates are highly unstable over time, while country characteristics are highly persistent. The correlation across decades of countries' growth rates of income per capita is around 0.1 to 0.3, while most country characteristics display cross-decade correlations of 0.6 to 0.9. Correlations of growth across periods as long as two decades─periods lengths comparable to those used in the cross-section empirical literature─are similarly low. With a few famous exceptions, the same countries do not do well period after period; countries are "success stories" one period and disappointments the next.

The low persistㄷnce of growth rates reconciles the enormous variation in growth rates across countries with remarkable stability of relative incomes across countries. For each of the last two decades the standard deviation of growth rates has been over 2.5, nearly the growth difference between Japan and the US. Yet the correlation of (Summers and Heston (1991)) GDP per capita in 1960 and 1988 was 0.92. Even more striking the rank correlation of GDP per capita for the 28 countries for which Maddison (1989) has data is 0.82 over 1870-1988. Major changes in country income rankings would have required large persistent differences in growth rates; in the event, income rankings did not change much and only a small fraction of the growth differences between countries were persistent.

This paper has three sections and a conclusion. The first section presents the basic facts about persistence of cross country growth differences and of country characteristics. The second section attempts to identify the temporary shocks important in explaining low persistence of growth rates across decades. The third section interprets low persistence under two types of growth models: models in which country characteristics determine long-run growth rates and models in which country characteristics determine relative levels of steady state income and long-run growth rates are determined by worldwide technological change. ( ... )

The persistence of growth rate differences across countries, even over long periods, is low. ( ... ) This low persistence result is robust over the choice of country sample, time period, and sectoral performance measure.

( ... ... )

The most straightforward explanation of the low persistence of growth rates would be that the country characteristics usually thought to be determine growth are themselves not persistent. This section shows this explanation to be untenable: country characteristics are persistent.

2015년 7월 10일 금요일

Dic: fix as a noun meaning a clear determination or understanding

a fix (noun):

  • (a) something that solves a problem
  • (b) something that has been dishonestly arranged. (cf. predicament and its synonyms)
  • (c) a clear determination or understanding. 
  • etc.

* * *

As a noun meaning (c) in the above:

  • a briefing that gave us a fix on the current situation.
  • It's been hard to get a steady fix on what's going on.
  • He peered out, trying to get a fix on the enemy's position.
  • I couldn't seem to get a fix on the situation.

△ If you get a fix on someone or something, you have a clear idea or understanding of them. (informal)

△ get a fix on sb/sth:

  1. to find out exactly where someone or something is.
  2. to understand what someone or something is really like.

... COBUILD, LDOCE, American Heritage