2009년 2월 28일 토요일

Stéphane Mallarmé

Stéphane Mallarmé

BornMarch 18, 1842
DiedSeptember 9, 1898
Literary movementParnassian poets,Symbolist poets

Stéphane Mallarmé (French pronunciation: [malaʁˈme]) (March 181842 – September 91898), whose real name was Étienne Mallarmé, was a French poet and critic.




Mallarmé was born in Paris. He worked as an English teacher, and spent much of his life in relative poverty; but he was a major French symbolist poet and rightly famed for his salons, occasional gatherings of intellectuals at his house for discussions of poetry, art, philosophy. The group became known as les Mardistes, because they met on Tuesdays (in Frenchmardi), and through it Mallarmé exerted considerable influence on the work of a generation of writers (see below).

Édouard ManetPortrait of Stéphane Mallarmé, 1876

His earlier work owes a great deal to the style established by Charles Baudelaire. His fin de siècle style, on the other hand, anticipates many of the fusions between poetry and the other arts that were to blossom in the DadaistSurrealist, andFuturist schools, where the tension between the words themselves and the way they were displayed on the page was explored. But whereas most of this latter work was concerned principally with form, Mallarmé's work was more generally concerned with the interplay of style and content. This is particularly evident in the highly innovative Un coup de dés jamais n'abolira le hasard ('A roll of the dice will never abolish chance') of 1897, his last major poem.

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Some consider Mallarmé one of the French poets most difficult to translate into English. This is often said to be due to the inherently vague nature of much of his work, but this explanation is really a simplification. On a closer reading of his work in the original French, it is clear that the importance of sound relationships between the words in the poetry equals, or even surpasses, the importance of the standard meanings of the words themselves. This generates new meanings in the spoken text which are not evident on reading the work on the page. It is this aspect of the work that is impossible to render in translation (especially when attempting a more literal fidelity to the words as well), since it arises from ambiguities inextricably bound in the phonology of the spoken French language. It can also be suggested that it is this 'pure sound' aspect of his poetry that has led to its inspiring musical compositions (see below), and to its direct comparison with music.

A good example of this play of sound appears in Mallarmé'sSonnet en '-yx'. The poem opens with the phrase ses purs ongles ('her pure nails'), whose first syllables when spoken aloud sound very similar to the words c'est pur son ('it's pure sound'). This use of homophony, along with the relationships and layers of meanings it results in, is simply impossible to capture accurately through translation.[1]

For many years, the Tuesday night sessions in his apartment on the rue de Rome were considered the heart of Paris intellectual life, with W.B. YeatsRainer Maria RilkePaul Valéry,Stefan GeorgePaul Verlaine, and many more in attendance, as Mallarmé held court as judge, jester, and king.

He died in Valvins in 1898.


Mallarmé's poetry has been the inspiration for several musical pieces, notably Claude Debussy'sPrélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (1894), a free interpretation of Mallarmé's poem L'après-midi d'un faune (1876), which creates powerful impressions by the use of striking but isolated phrases.Maurice Ravel set Mallarmé's poetry to music in Trois poèmes de Stéphane Mallarmé (1913). Other composers to use his poetry in song include Darius Milhaud (Chansons bas de Stéphane Mallarmé, 1917) and Pierre Boulez (Pli selon pli, 1957-62).

The poet and visual artist Marcel Broodthaers was strongly influenced by Mallarmé, as evidenced by his Un coup de Dés, based on the typographical layout of Mallarmé's, but with the words blacked over by bars.

Stéphane Mallarmé as a faun, cover of the literary magazine Les hommes d'aujourd'hui, 1887.

The Dadaist artist Man Ray's last film, entitled Les Mystéres du Château du Dé (The Mystery of the Chateau of Dice) (1929), was greatly influenced by Mallarmé's work, prominently featuring the line "A roll of the dice will never abolish chance," from the poem by Mallarmé of the same name.

It has been suggested by some that much of Mallarmé's work influenced the conception of hypertext, with his emphasis on the importance of space and placement on the page. This becomes very apparent in his work "Un coup de dés jamais n'abolira le hasard" ('A roll of the dice will never abolish chance'). The placement of the words, the relationship between form and content, and all the different ways, combinations and permutations that one can read the poem are truly groundbreaking.

Prior to 2004, "Un Coup de Dés" was never published in the typography and format conceived by Mallarmé. In 2004, 90 copies on vellum of a new edition were published by Michel Pierson et Ptyx. This edition is a restitution of the typography originally designed by Mallarmé for the projected Vollard edition in 1897 and which was abandoned after the sudden death of the author in 1898. This restitution has been made from the proofs which are kept in the Bibliothèque Nationale of France, taking into account the written corrections and wishes of Mallarmé and correcting certain errors on the part of the printers Firmin-Didot.

For the first time, all the pages are printed in the format(38cm by 28cm) and in the typography chosen by the author and it is now at last possible, more than 100 years after its conception,to see and read the "Coup de Dés" as Mallarmé" wanted it to be "in its exact spiritual setting," without dissociating content and form or the spirit of the lettering.

A copy of this new edition can be consulted in the Bibliothèque François-Mitterand. Copies have been acquired by the Bibliothèque littéraire Jacques-Doucet and Irvine University, California, as well as by private collectors. A copy has been placed in the Museum Stéphane Mallarmé at Vulaines-sur-Seine, Valvins, where Mallarmé lived and died and where, according to Paul Valéry, he made his final corrections on the proofs prior to the projected printing of the poem.

Refs: On the publishing of "Un Coup de Dés" and its mishaps after the death of Mallarmé, consult the notes and commentary of Bertrand Marchal for his edition of the complete works of Mallarmé, Volume 1, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, Gallimard 1998. To delve more deeply, "Igitur, Divigations, Un Coup de Dés," edited by Bertrand Marchal with a preface by Yves Bonnefoy, nfr Poésie/Gallimard

Mallarmé is referred to extensively in the latter section of Joris-Karl HuysmansÀ rebours, where Des Esseintes describes his fervour-infused enthusiasm for the poet: "These were Mallarmé's masterpieces and also ranked among the masterpieces of prose poetry, for they combined a style so magnificently than in itself it was as soothing as a melancholy incantation, an intoxicating melody, with irresistibly suggestive thoughts, the soul-throbs of a sensitive artist whose quivering nerves vibrate with an intensity that fills you with a painful ecstasy." [p.198, Robert Baldick translation]



  1. ^ Roger Pearson, Unfolding Mallarme. The development of a poetic art. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996. ISBN 019815917X

External links

French Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Synonyms: mysterious, esoteric, arcane, occult, inscrutable

These adjectives mean beyond human power to explain or understand. 
  • Something mysterious arouses wonder and inquisitiveness:
    ... "The sea lies all about us.... In its mysterious past it encompasses all the dim origins of life" Rachel Carson. 
  • What is esoteric is mysterious because only a select group knows and understands it:
    ... a compilation of esoteric philosophical essays
  • Arcane applies to what is hidden from general knowledge:
    ... arcane economic theories
  • Occult suggests knowledge reputedly gained only by secret, magical, or supernatural means:
    ... an occult rite
  • Something that is inscrutable cannot be fathomed by means of investigation or scrutiny:
    ... "It is not for me to attempt to fathom the inscrutable workings of Providence" Earl of Birkenhead.
.... Am-Heritage

cast of mind, cast one's mind, cast something out of one's mind

cast : (Am-Heritage) 15. An inclination; tendency: 
  • her thoughtful cast of mind.

cast:  (다음영어사전) 5.(보통 a ~) (얼굴 생김새·성질 등의) 특색, 기질: 
  • a cast of countenance [mind] 얼굴 생김새[마음씨]

  • He has an unusual cast of mind. (출처: OALD) 
  • Brunswik's cast of mind compelled him to fit together with precision his conceptual framework, his methodology, and his views of the history of psychology. (출처: Wikipedia) 
  • His nature writings are distinguished by a poetic and philosophical cast of mind and are scientifically scrupulous. (출처: Wikipedia) 
  • Cast out of your mind any thoughts of baguettes sliced lengthwise, smeared with garlic butter and wrapped in foil. (출처: The Independent) 
  • Garrison Keillor's last full-length fictional trip to Lake Wobegon occurred in 2001, when he cast his mind back to the town in the summer of 1956. (출처: Herald Tribune) 


4. ADJ : usu v-link ADJ, oft ADJ about n
If you say that someone is particular, you mean that they choose things and do things very carefully, and are not easily satisfied.
  • Ted was very particular about the colors he used.
......... Cobuild

4(b) Attentive to or concerned with details or niceties, often excessively so; meticulous or fussy. (Am-Heritage)

4. difficult to please; fussy (Collins Essential)

5. exacting especially about details; 
  • "a finicky eater"; 
  • "fussy about clothes"; 
  • "very particular about how her food was prepared" 
  • = finical, finicky, picky, fussy
  • (Rel) fastidious - giving careful attention to detail; hard to please; excessively concerned with cleanliness; "a fastidious and incisive intellect"; "fastidious about personal cleanliness"
....... Thesaurus/WordNet3.0


If something fulfils you, or if you fulfil yourself, you feel happy and satisfied with what you are doing or with what you have achieved.
  • The war was the biggest thing in her life and nothing after that quite fulfilled her.    
  • They don't like the idea that women can fulfil themselves without the assistance of a man
  • =  satisfy   
.... Cobuild


7. numbers. 
  a. A large quantity; a multitude: Numbers of people visited the fair.
  b. Numerical superiority: The South had leaders, the North numbers.

11. number: an item of merchandise offered for sale; 
  • "she preferred the black nylon number"
  • "this sweater is an all-wool number" 
  • (Rel) merchandise, product, ware - commodities offered for sale;
    "good business depends on having good merchandise"; "that store offers a variety of products"
......... Thesaureus/WordNet 3.0

2009년 2월 27일 금요일

to hand, at hand, in hand

44. PHRASE : PHR after v, v-link PHR
If you have something to hand or near to hand, you have it with you or near you, ready to use when needed.
  • You may want to keep this brochure safe, so you have it to hand whenever you may need it.
11. PHRASE : PHR after v, v-link PHR
If something is at hand, near at hand, or close at hand, it is very near in place or time.
  • Having the right equipment at hand will be enormously helpful.
28. PHRASE : usu with amount PHR
If you have time or money in hand, you have more time or money than you need.[ BRIT ]
  • Hughes finished with 15 seconds in hand.
29. PHRASE : n PHR, v-link PHR
The job or problem in hand is the job or problem that you are dealing with at the moment.
  • The business in hand was approaching some kind of climax.
30. PHRASE : v-link PHR, PHR after v
If a situation is in hand, it is under control.
  • The Olympic organisers say that matters are well in hand.
2. PHRASE : V inflects
If you take something or someone in hand, you take control or responsibility over them, especially in order to improve them.
  • I hope that Parliament will soon take the NHS in hand.
... Cobuild

A flawed philosophy: Tony Blair's attempt to marry compassion and meritocracy is doomed to failure

자료: Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2002/jun/17/socialexclusion.comment

Richard Sennett
guardian.co.uk, Monday 17 June 2002 10.57 BST

Lost in last week's hoo-ha about funeral etiquette was the real news: the prime minister finally told us what he believes. In a speech on welfare reform given on June 11 Tony Blair set out with conviction and eloquence his two social goals for this parliament: to promote upward social mobility and to treat compassionately those left behind. Unfortunately, opportunity and compassion make an unhappy marriage - as the American welfare system shows.

Since Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal, government in America has sought to provide education and work for the ablest poor people. The passion to reward merit persisted even during the dry Reagan years. This strategy largely worked: there are few talented young people who cannot find a good job or a bursary and the welfare state helped build a black petit bourgeoisie.

But this "creaming" strategy has only increased the gap between the haves and the have-nots. The people whom the sociologist Christopher Jencks calls the "unexceptional disadvantaged" have seen their standards of living decline in the past 40 years. Emphasising social mobility has weakened compassionate care for those left behind.

In a country where, as F Scott Fitzgerald said, there are no second chances, competitive Americans have little time for losers. It's just tough luck that 43 million people now lack health insurance. But compassion is as much a troubling partner in this marriage as opportunity.

The philosopher Hannah Arendt once proclaimed that "compassion breeds inequality". Middle-class women in 19th-century Britain and America who visited the poor undoubtedly felt sympathy for those condemned to the slums, but their visits often aroused resentment. "Helping those who cannot help themselves" continues to carry an undertow of condescension: the needy have nothing to give back. Thus the anthropologist Mary Douglas observes about traditional Christian charity: "Compassion wounds."

In his speech, the prime minister seemed aware that something is amiss with old-fashioned forms of help. He spoke of the need for self-respect and self-belief among equals. But the only way he could think to fulfil this need was by turning to the "enterprise culture" which promotes "meritocracy" - that is, the self-respect which comes from doing better than others.

The enterprise culture of modern Britain has produced a curious class structure. Fat cats have become fatter relative to the rest of the population. On the positive side, grinding poverty is diminishing, especially among new immigrants - those spoilers of David Blunkett's imagination who are proving enterprising and hard-working. It is the lower-middle bulge of society whose incomes are stagnating, and who feel most the effects of decaying welfare services. They should be the real targets of welfare reform, but they are also most likely to resent being treated with condescension. This has been Blair's dilemma in politics: he wants to connect with just that section of the population that believes he is out of touch. For them, compassion condescends, meritocracy excludes.

There is a way out of this dilemma, but it requires New Labour to look critically at itself. A cleaner welfare state would concentrate on providing a universal safety net and would forget about social mobility. The job of the state is to make sure that everyone has enough to eat, can get medical care when they need it, can get to work without risk. Climbing the greasy pole of success should be left to individuals.

A number of experiments are afoot in providing welfare of this sort. The American jurist Bruce Ackermann has long advocated providing capital accounts to young people, a fund of cash they can spend as they see fit. Here, the chancellor has started a programme to do just that. The LSE policy analyst Julian Le Grand is trying to figure out how to strengthen the safety net provided by the health service. More radically, Claus Offe and other northern European social reformers are seeking ways to pay for basic income support for all by cutting down on social workers, psychiatric counsellors, and others serving in the brigades of professional compassion.

Much of New Labour is uneasy about these experiments because concentrating on the universal safety net seems to arouse the spectres of old Labour and socialism. But radicals like Offe answer that what they in fact want to end is the nanny state. If an 18-year-old spends his savings account on higher education, fine; if he loses it at Ladbrokes, that's his look-out. This riposte isn't quite hard-hearted. Critics of existing welfare regimes throughout the western world point to the enormous bureaucracies that have arisen to monitor and control how welfare clients use their benefits. The brigades of professional compassion are dwarfed by this army of accountants, who do real damage to the self-respect of both users and service providers.

New Labour wants to promote an enterprise culture but it does not want to let go of control - auditing is in its blood. The US is an example of letting go come what may and, while many New Labourites approve of American enterprise, they don't like, for good reason, its consequences for ordinary people.

The particular reproach I'd make to the prime minister's speech lies in his belief that the state has an interest in the social mobility of its citizens. It seems eminently just to me that government generates the funds to provide for a university education, if that's what a young person wants. But if she chooses Oxbridge - which will provide a leg-up in later life - she should pay for it. The same logic applies to any inequality: the state should not contribute to it. Government should not support private medical care or pensions, as has been proposed, nor privilege one kind of business over another, as it currently does.

Inequality is inherent in capitalism; there is no third way out of this brutal fact. To abet inequality through preaching meritocracy and practising creaming seems to me the fatal flaw in the prime minister's vision for this government.

I feel somewhat uneasy about making this argument just now. The media frenzy over Tony Blair's etiquette at funerals is not incidental to the fact that the prime minister has given the defining speech of his political career. Blair's Christian compassion is genuine, and it makes journalists squirm. Even the tigerish Jeremy Paxman became discomfited by it in a recent television interview. It's easier to reduce Blair to the spin-obsessed, red-eyed monster of the old Tory political adverts.

What Blair's speech revealed is a Christian embracing enterprise capitalism - always a difficult partnership. Odd as it may seem, Tony Blair struck me as a heroic figure in wrestling with his angel and his devil. Whether, as Hannah Arendt believed, Christian compassion itself tends toward inequality is debatable; whether capitalism tends toward inequality is not. The answer the prime minister has come to through his struggles is fatally flawed. Promoting social mobility is no practical recipe for fixing the welfare state.

( ... ... )

Ethics in Architectural Design

By Ömer Akin

※ 메모: 

...... One of the most remarkable treatises on architecture that deals with the value ethical approach to architecture is Ruskin’s Seven Lamps of Architecture. His contribution clearly gave impetus to movements to follow, including Modernism. In his preamble he states:

I believe architecture must be the beginning of arts, and that the others must follow her in their time and order: and I think the prosperity of our schools of painting and sculpture, in which
no one will deny the life, though many the health, depends upon that of our architecture. (Ruskin 1981)

This is a simple affirmation of the important role of architecture as the branch of the arts that connects aesthetics with the domain of ethics through the cultural context within which architecture exists. His treatise puts fourth a set of characteristics that architecture has to
fulfill in order to meet its moral obligations. The seven lamps: sacrifice, truth, power, beauty, life, memory and obedience clearly derive from the Aristotelian notion of virtue. 

In discussing the lamp of truth for example he begins his discourse by stating:

There is a marked likeness between the virtues of man and the enlightenment of the globe. (Ruskin 1981)

Ruskin uses the metaphor to effect, which is pursued throughout the book to bolster the anthropomorphic approach. Later he speaks of the principal of truth as it applies to the building design, as if the building’s morality is exhibited in behavior attributed to inanimate materials from which it is made (Ruskin 1981).

Ruskin establishes a principle of moral imperative through each of his lamps. At once he is arguing for a virtue-based ethic in architecture while he is also establishing principles like the ‘honesty, or truthfulness, of the use of materials.’ This principle in particular became one of the flags of the Modernist movement and has been hotly debated ever since.

In describing the Modernist ethics, for instance, Royston Landau (1997) talks about several key ideas: freedom from convention, social responsibility, and, of course, honesty of expression of materials. He points out that one of the basic tenets of Modernism has been the freedom from the ‘tyranny’ of classical architecture and its archaic patterns. At once Landau’s approach harks back to the Aristotelian and Platonic virtue set of the moral individual and at the same time to the individualism of the early American architects, who ironically were trained at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, the hot bed of neo-classicalarchitecture. Landau also refers to the social and cultural context of architecture and reiterates the Modernist principle that requires the architect to be responsible towards the cultural context of their buildings. ..............

Seven Lamps of Architecture (John Ruskin)

자료: Internet Archive, http://www.archive.org/details/sevenlampsofarc00rusk


1. to trip and almost fall while walking or running
2. to walk in an unsteady or unsure way
3. to make mistakes or hesitate in speech
4. stumble across(or on or upon): to encounter or discover (someone or something) by accident

... Collins Essential

  •  "The urge to wider voyages . . . caused men to stumble upon New America" Kenneth Cragg.                                                     ... Am-Heritage
  • I'm not sure I understand the issue, but I'll stumble along anyway as if I do. (출처: USENET)
  • There he was able to perform his experiments without fear that the authorities would stumble onto his work. (출처: Wikipedia) 
  • Truth is something you stumble into when you think you're going some place else. (출처: USENET)
  • I've covered a bit of ground that you are likely to stumble around. (출처: USENET)

2009년 2월 26일 목요일

propose to do something

If you propose to do something, you intend to do it.
  • It's still far from clear what action the government proposes to take over the affair.   
  • And where do you propose building such a huge thing?
..... Cobuild

4. To make known as one's intention; purpose or intend: proposed to buy and run a farm.
... Am-Heritage

3. to intend (to do something): 
  • I don't propose to waste any more time discussing it.
......... Collins Essential

모리스 (영국 신학자) [Maurice, John Frederick Denison], Working Men's College

자료: 다음백과(브리태니커)

1805. 8. 29 잉글랜드 서퍽 노먼스턴~1872. 4. 1 런던.

19세기 영국 성공회의 주요신학자. 많은 저서를 냈으며 주로 그리스도교 사회주의 창시자로 알려져 있다.


성공회 신앙고백인 39개 조항(Thirty-nine Articles)에 동의하지 않는다는 이유로 케임브리지대학교 법학부를 졸업하지 못하게 되자 1830년 이 신앙고백을 따르기로 하고 옥스퍼드대학교에 들어갔다. 수년간 런던에서 작가와 문학잡지 편집인으로 활동했으며, 1834년 유일한 소설인 〈유스타스 콘웨이 Eustace Conway〉를 발표했다. 사제 서품을 받아 곧 런던에 있는 가이 병원 신부가 되었다. 1840년 케임브리지 킹스 칼리지의 영문학교수와 근대사교수로 부임한 지 6년 뒤에 신학부 교수가 되었고, 런던의 법률 학회인 링컨 법학회관(Lincoln's Inn)의 기관신부가 되었다. 저서 〈그리스도의 왕국 The Kingdom of Christ〉(1838)이 출판되어 신학자로서 명성을 날렸으며, 이 책에서 교회는 개인·당파·종파들의 다양성과 편파성을 초월한 연합된 몸이라고 주장했다. 이러한 견해는 20세기 에큐메니컬 운동을 예고한 선구자적인 견해로 여겨지지만 당시에는 정통 성공회 인사들로부터 의혹을 받았다. 이것은 1848년 그가 온건파 성공회 신부인 찰스 킹슬리, 존 맬컴 루들로, 그밖에 다른 사람들과 함께 그리스도교 사회주의 운동을 주창하자 한층 더해졌다. 1853년 발표한 〈신학 에세이 Theological Essays〉에서 지옥이 영원히 존재함을 그가 믿지 않는다는 사실이 드러나자 모리스에 대한 반대는 더욱 심해져 그해 케임브리지 킹스 칼리지에서 해임되었다. 교육자로서의 재능과 노동자들의 지위를 개선하려는 열정을 합해 노동자 칼리지(Working Men's College : 1854)를 세우고 초대 학장(1854)이 되었으며, 노동자와 함께 협력단체를 만들었다. 1860년 링컨 법학회관의 기관신부직을 사임하고 성베드로 교회에서 봉직했으며, 그곳에서 그의 설교에 감탄한 사람들로부터 '예언자'라는 찬사를 받았다. 1866년 케임브리지대학교에서 도덕철학교수로 임명받아 윤리적 주제들에 관해 강의하면서 유명한 〈사회도덕 Social Morality〉(1869)을 썼다. 죽을 때까지 교수직에 있으면서 1870년 케임브리지 성에드워드 교회의 신부직을 겸했다.

제2차 세계대전 후 그의 저술에 대한 관심이 다시 일었고, 일부 비판자들은 그의 사상이 시대에 뒤떨어지고 모호하다고 주장했지만 그리스도교 사회주의를 연구하는 사람들에게는 여전히 다재다능하고 창조적인 인물로 평가받고 있다. 주요저서로는 〈도덕철학과 형이상학 Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy〉(1850~62)·〈계시란 무엇인가? What is Revelation?〉(1859)·〈성서의 주장과 과학의 주장 The Claims of the Bible and of Science〉(1863) 등이 있다.

Count Dunin's Man of Steel (or Mechanical Figure)

.... Marochetti‘s figure was sited at the end of the building which was reserved for products of British industry. Inside the building at this end, in the gallery devoted to the display of philosophical instruments, was another figure that attracted some attention, the Lay Figure or Expanding Model Of A Man designed by the Polish exile and inventor Count Dunin, a medal-winner in the category of Philosophical Instruments and their dependent processes (see fig. 3). The Expanding Model was described by the Illustrated London News as ‗a most singular mechanical invention […] a marvel of human ingenuity‘.15 Details of the invention were given in the official catalogue where it was listed as a ‗Piece of mechanism designed to illustrate the different proportions of the human figure: it admits of being expanded from the size of the Apollo Belvedere to that of a colossal statue‘. It was explained ‗this invention could be made applicable in the artist‘s studio‘ (in other words as a lay figure to present the pose of any figure); but the catalogue entry went on, ‗its more immediate object is to facilitate the exact fitting of garments, more especially in cases where great numbers are to be provided for, as in the equipment of an army or providing clothing for a distant colony‘.16 The contraption allowed the total armed contingent to be described and acknowledged, this one metal body contained them all, in all their peculiarities or deformities, from a less developed, five-foot specimen to a giant of six foot eight inches.17 Count Dunin envisaged a tailor‘s shop with three or four of these mannequins producing perfectly fitting uniforms for ‗several hundred thousand men‘ without personal attendance. In a democratic age the vocabulary of the heroic had to become inclusive and this Expanding Man could admit the deformity of the individual as well as presenting the antique ideal. .....

Great Exhibition

자료: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Exhibition

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Queen Victoria opens the Great Exhibition in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London in 1851.
The Great Exhibition 1851.
The enormous "Crystal Palace" went from plans to grand opening in just nine months.
Exhibition interior
The front entrance of the Great Exhibition.
Paxton's "Crystal Palace" enclosed full-grown trees in Hyde Park.

The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde ParkLondonEngland, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that were to become a popular 19th century feature. The Great Exhibition was organised by Henry Cole and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the spouse of the city's reigning monarch,Victoria of the United Kingdom. It was attended by numerous notable figures of the time, including members of the former French Royal Family and the writers Charlotte Brontë and George Eliot.




The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations was organized by Prince AlbertHenry ColeFrancis HenryCharles Dilke and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce as a celebration of modern industrial technology and design. It can be argued that the Great Exhibition was mounted in response to the highly successful French Industrial Exposition of 1844. Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's consort, was an enthusiastic promoter of a self-financing exhibition; the government was persuaded to form the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 to establish the viability of hosting such an exhibition.

A special building, nicknamed The Crystal Palace,[1] was designed by Joseph Paxton (with support from structural engineer Charles Fox) to house the show; an architecturally adventurous building based on Paxton's experience designing greenhouses for the sixth Duke of Devonshire, constructed from cast iron-frame components and glass made almost exclusively in Birmingham and Smethwick, which was an enormous success. The committee overseeing its construction included Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The massive glass house was 1848 feet (about 563 metres) long by 454 feet (about 138 metres) wide, and went from its initial plans of organisation to its grand opening in just nine months. The building was later moved and re-erected in an enlarged form atSydenham in south London, an area that was renamed Crystal Palace; it was eventually destroyed by fire.[1]

Six million people – equivalent to a third of the entire population of Britain at the time – visited the Exhibition. The Great Exhibition made a surplus of £186,000 which was used to found the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum which were all built in the area to the south of the exhibition, nicknamed "Albertopolis", alongside the Imperial Institute. The remaining surplus was used to set up an educational trust to provide grants and scholarships for industrial research, and continues to do so today.[2]

The exhibition caused controversy at the time. Some conservatives feared that the mass of visitors might become a revolutionary mob,[citation needed] whilst radicals such as Karl Marx saw the exhibition as an emblem of the capitalist fetishism of commodities. In modern times the Great Exhibition has become a symbol of the Victorian Age, and its thick catalogue illustrated with steel engravings is a primary source for High Victorian design. [3]

[edit]Notable exhibits

Exhibits came, not only from throughout Britain, but also its expanding imperial colonies, such asAustraliaIndia and New Zealand, and other foreign countries such as DenmarkFrance andSwitzerland. Numbering 13,000 in total they included a Jacquard loom, an envelope machine, kitchen appliances, steel-making displays and a reaping machine which was sent from the United States.[4]

  • Alfred Charles Hobbs used the exhibition to demonstrate the inadequacy of several respectedlocks of the day.
  • Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a precursor to today's Fax machine.
  • Mathew Brady wins medal for his daguerreotypes.
  • William Chamberlin, Jr., of Sussex, exhibited what may have been the world's first voting machine, which counted votes automatically and employed an interlocking system to prevent overvoting.[5]
  • The Tempest Prognosticator, a barometer using leeches, was demonstrated at the Great Exhibition
  • The America's Cup yachting event began with a race held in conjunction with the Great Exhibition.
  • George Jennings designed the first public conveniences in the Retiring Rooms of the Crystal Palace for which he charged one penny.
  • The Koh-i-noor, the world's biggest known diamond at the time of the great exhibition

[edit]Admission fees

Admission prices to the Crystal Palace varied according to the date of visitation, with ticket prices decreasing as the parliamentary season drew to an end and London traditionally emptied of wealthy individuals. Prices varied from 3 guineas per day, £1 per day, five shillings per day, down to one shilling per day. The one shilling ticket proved most successful amongst the industrial classes, with four and a half million shillings being taken from attendees in this manner.[6]

[edit]See also


  1. a b "The Great Exhibition of 1851"Duke Magazine. 2006-11. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  2. ^ The Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851. "About Us". Retrieved on 2008-11-01.
  3. ^ A copy of the Illustrated Catalogue is available on Google books at http://www.google.com/books?id=OfMHAAAAQAAJ&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
  4. ^ "The Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace". Victorian Station. Accessed 3 February 2009.
  5. ^ "The Great Exhibition," Manchester Times (24 May 1851).
  6. ^ "Entrance Costs to the Great Exhibition". Fashion Era. Accessed 3 February 2009.

[edit]External links

[edit]Further reading

  • Auerbach, Jeffrey A. The Great Exhibition of 1851: A Nation on Display, Yale University Press, 1999.
  • Gibbs-Smith, Charles Harvard The Great Exhibition of 1851, 2nd edition, London: HMSO, 1981.
  • Greenhalgh, Paul Ephemeral vistas: the expositions universelles, great exhibitions and world's fairs, 1851-1939, Manchester University Press, 1988
  • Leapman, Michael. The World for a Shilling: How the Great Exhibition of 1851 Shaped a Nation, Headline Books, 2001.
  • Dickinson's Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851, Dickinson Brothers, London, 1854.[1]