2014년 11월 5일 수요일

[Hayek's Road To Serfdom, Ch1] The Abandoned Road



※ 발췌 (excerpt): 

Chapter 1
The Abandoned Road


1. When the course of civilization takes an unexpected turn ... ...


2. While all our energies are directed to bring this war to a victorious conclusion, ... ...


3. Now, it is somewhat difficult to think of Germany and Italy, or Russia, not as different worlds but as products of a development of thought in which we have shared; ... ...


4. That a change of ideas and the force of human will have made the world what it is now, ... ...


5. The crucial point of which our people are still so little aware is, however, not merely the magnitude of changes which have taken place during the last generation but the fact that they mean a complete change in the direction of the evolution of our ideas and social order. ... ...


6. How sharp a break not only with the recent past but with the whole evolution of Western civilization the modern trend toward socialism means becomes clear if we consider it not merely agasint the backgound of the 19th century but in a longer historical perspective. ... ...


7. The Nazi leader who described the National Socialist revolution as a counter-Renaissance spoke more truly than he probably knew. ... ...


8. The gradual transformation of a rigidly organized hierarchic system into one where men could at least attempt to shape their own life, where man gained the opportunity of knowing and choosing between different forms of life, is closely associated with the growth of commerce. ... ...


9. During the whole of this modern period of European history the general direction of social development was one of freeing the individual from the ties which had bound him to the customary or prescribed ways in the pursuit of his ordinary activities. ... ...


10. Perhaps the greatest result of the unchaining of individual energies was the marvelous growth of science which followed the march of individual liberty from Italy to England and beyond.  ... ...


11. As is so often true, the nature of our civilization has been seen more clearly by its enemies than by most of its friends: ... ...


12. The result of this growth surpassed all expectations. Wherever the barriers to the free exercise of human ingenuity were removed, man became rapidly able to satisfy ever widening ranges of desire. ... ... 


13. What in the future will probably appear the most significant and far-reaching effect of this success is the new sense of power over their own fate, the belief in the unbounded possibilities of improving their own lot, which the success already achieved created among men. ... ...


14. There is nothing in the basic principles of liberalism to make it a stationary creed; there are no hard-and-fast rules fixed once and for all. ... ...


15. But, with this attitude taken by many popularizers of the liberal doctrine, it was almost inevitable that, once their position was penetrated at some points, it should soon collapse as a whole. ... ...


16. No sensible person should have doubted that the crude rules in which the principles of economic policy of the nineteenth century were expressed were only a beginning—that we had yet much to learn and that there were still immense possibilities of advancement on the lines on which we had moved. ... ... 


17. But while the progress toward what is commonly called “positive” action was necessarily slow, and while for the immediate improvement liberalism had to rely largely on the gradual increase of wealth which freedom brought about, it had constantly to fight proposals which threatened this progress. ... ...


18. Because of the growing impatience with the slow advance of liberal policy, the just irritation with those who used liberal phraseology in defense of antisocial privileges, and the boundless ambition seemingly justified by the material improvements already achieved, it came to pass that toward the turn of the century the belief in the basic tenets of liberalism was more and more relinquished. ... ... 


19. This is not the place to discuss how this change in outlook was fostered by the uncritical transfer to the problems of society of habits of thought engendered by the preoccupation with technological problems, the habits of thought of the natural scientist and the engineer, and how these at the same time tended to discredit the results of the past study of society which did not conform to their prejudices and to impose ideals of organization on a sphere to which they are not appropriate.11 All we are here concerned to show is how completely, though gradually and by almost imperceptible steps, our attitude toward society has changed. What at every stage of this process of change had appeared a difference of degree only has in its cumulative effect already brought about a fundamental difference between the older liberal attitude toward society and the present approach to social problems. The change amounts to a complete reversal of the trend we have sketched, an entire abandonment of the individualist tradition which has created Western civilization.


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