출처: Lauro Martines (2013). Power And Imagination: City-states in Renaissance Italy. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
THE ASCENT OF COMMUNES
1.2 Communes Emerge
We have seen that the peninsula had several sovereignties─royal, papal, Byzantine, and independent. Only one, however, offered the environment for city-states, the feudal kingdom of upper Italy: land of bellicose cities, communes, and astonishing urban energies. Royal authority here, in accord with the nature of feudal kingship, was divided among a number of parts, specifically seven marquisates at the beginning of the 11th century. But the marguisates were themselves subdivided into counties, and it was at the county level, or at the level of even lesser feuds (e.g., the ^pieve^ and castle), that powers was effectively exercised. The countryside around Pisa, for example, was under the immediate rule of a hereditary viscount, supposedly the representative of an overload based in Lucca, the marquis of Tuscany. This dignitary was, in his turn, a royal-imperial official, holding the marquisate as a fief from the crown of the Italic kingdom. In fact, keeping with feudal realities, the authority of the marquis was far from complete, for after 1052 the bishops of Arezo and Volterra held the preponderance of temporal authority in these Tuscan cities. And the viscount of Pisa independently managed his own affairs, while also claiming (as ^gastaldo^) some authority directly from the crown and having to share still other jurisdictions with the powerful archbishop of Pisa.
There was no necessary coordination, no shaping policy, and only a phantom central administration linking together the different parts of the kingdom. Real authority was local authority, wielded by one or several lords: marquis, bishop, count, viscount, abbot, ^gastaldo^, or captain. Once these had been weakened or elbowed aside, the political history of the Italy of the German kings became the history of cities driving aggressively out beyond their horizons.
The starting point in the city's territorial expansion was the diocese, the major unit of church administration, headed by a bishop. ( ... ... )
THE EARLY COMMUNE AND ITS NOBILITY
2.1 COMMUNE AND EMPIRE (p.22)
Communes were fairly synonymous with self-government, but around the year 1100 self-government was realized by seizing it. The early commune bristled with weapons. It members looked to the defense of the city and its walls; they engaged in mounted combat or naval warfare; and while they were committed to keeping the peace, they were also sworn to help in the repelling of all threats to the existence or powers of the commune. Born in a climate of revolutionary change, whether with the aid of the bishop or against him, the commune straightway made enemies: the bishop or archbishop, counts or viscounts, the Pataria, feudal magnates in the outlying districts, neighboring cities or rival powers, marquis, pope, or emperor.
From the earliest times, the intensity of local patriotism was amazingly strong. Pavia, the old capital of the Italic kingdom, never forgave Milan, some 20 or 25 miles away, for its dramatic rise and importance on the Lombard Plain. As early as 1058 the two went to war over the question of Pavia's claims to jurisdictions in Milan. No sooner were communes established than they looked out suspiciously and jealously on their strongest or nearest urban neighbors. Suddenly they were implacable rivals, and open warfare soon broke out. The battled for the control of roads and riverways, tolls and customs, seaways and traffic, and for the right to monopolize commerce in certain goods.
Pisa and Genoa quarreled bitterly not long after 1016, and war raged between them almost continuously between 1067 and 1085; the hostilities would persist down to the 14th century. ( ... ) In 1107 Milan and Tortona were allies in wars against Pavia, Cremona, and Lodi. ( ... )
The major cities and even the little towns that started out as hardly more than castles (e.g., Prato) were social whirlpools, drawing in large numbers of immigrants from the rural sea around. Conversely, too, the economic interests and vitalities of the urban cluster spilled out into the deep countryside: ^cittadini^(citi folk) acquired more and more land, bought up feudal rights, and toiled to evade feudal claims. Propertied rustics and country knights, while holding on to their rural properties, often moved into the city and joined their interests with those of ^cittadini^. The authority of the urban commune thus spead out through the expanding property interests and commercial ties of its citizens, flowing ever more deeply into the countryside and overwhelming resistance there, whether from rural communes or feudal magnates.
The "consular commune" was the commune in its first stage of development, so called because it was governed by officials known as "consuls." And if consular leadership was often unsure of its political authority, such uncertainty was also felt in the rural parishes, all the more so as the power of the empire evaporated, as feudal magnates were challenged, and as cities increased their intimidating pressures. In these circumstances the strong carried the day might was right. ( ... ... )
2.2 CONSULAR INSTITUTIONS (p. 26)
The consular commune's battle for public rights went hand in hand with the rise within the city of increasingly complex institutions. Here, much more than in the struggle with the empire, we can begin to make out the intensity and richness of the spreading urban experience the variety of social groups, the political wizardry of emerging elites and transient pressure groups, and the imagination of ambitious men driven by worldly hopes, yet checked and divided, sometimes more and sometimes less, by some regard for the law. They wanted to respect the law, but their engulfing needs and desires often carried them outside it. One result was the emergence of a new body of public and private law.
( ... ... )
The commune was an association of men bound together by an oath and common interests. They swore to aid and defend one another; they pooled their prestige and minute jurisdictions, if they had any; and they invested their consuls, the official heads of the association, with executive and judicial powers. The associates─that is, the members of the commune─swore to obey and follow the consuls, who in turn swore to defend and uphold the association in all its rights and interests.
The oldest communal institution was the general assembly of all the members of the commune. ( ... ) During the first generation or so of the commune's existence, the general assembly was quite likely convened with some regularity, and in times of trouble even more often. Here the views of leading men were heard and important decisions taken, usually by acclamation. ( ... )
( ... ... )
The consulate, the assembled body of consuls, was the commune's highest executive and judicial magistracy. All important daily matters were discussed and decided here. Having sounded out the general assembly, the consuls made war and piece, led the communal armies, were responsible for the defense of the city, levied taxes, sired legislation, and served as the final appellate court. The consulate was the focus of power in the early commune: it was always coveted, always prized by the ambitious. ( ... ... )