출처: Nicholas Fyfe ed (2006). Images of the Street: Planning, Identity and Control in Public Space. Routledge.
※ 발췌 (excerpts): p. 274.
( ... ... ) In this essay I am mainly concerned with various subversive forms of public expression more or less conforming to a list provided by Arlene Raven (1993: 1): 'street art, guerrilla theatre, video, page art, billboards, protest actions and demonstrations, oral histories, dances, environments, posters, murals, paintings and sculpture ... ' These kinds of actions can all be described by the term 'culture jamming'. Below I focus on billboard defacement and the subversive projections of Krzysztof Wodiczko
In his pamphlet titled ^Culture Jamming^, Mark Dery (1993: 6) asks 'what shape does an engaged politics assume in an empire of signs?' His answer is a form of semiological guerrilla warfare (as envisioned by Umberto Eco (1967)) he calls Culture Jamming. Culture Jamming as a term originates from the words of a member of the band Negativeland who was describing billboard alterations: 'the skillfully reworked billboard ... directs the public viewer to a consideration of the original corporate strategy. The studio for the culture jammer is the world at large' (quoted in Dery, 1993: 6). In Culture Jamming the signs and significations of the mass media are hijacked and diverted to both draw attention to the original message and create new messages with radically different intent. Jammers, say Dery, are 'attempting to reclaim the public space ceded to the chimeras of Hollywood and Madison Avenue, to restore a sense of equilibrium to a society sickened by the vertiginous whirl of TV culture' (ibid.: 13).
Examples of Culture Jamming include the alteration billboard space, wittily changing one message to another. San Francisco and Oakland have been popular locations for this billboard banditry where "Tropical blend. The Savage Tan' becomes 'Typical Blend. Sex in Ads'. Artfux of New Jersey change a Coca-Cola Board to say 'Drink Coca-ColaㅡIt Makes You Fart'. In London feminist bandits alter an ad for tights showing a pair of legs in high heel emerging from an egg with the words 'Legs as soft and smooth as the day you were born' with the large black words 'Born Kicking'. An add for a Fiat car featuring a woman lying on top of a car saying, 'It's so practical darling' is altered with the addition of the words 'when I'm not lying on cars I'm a brain surgeon'. A Greenpeace ad features a woman dragging a fur coat with the words 'It takes up to 40 dumb animals to make a fur coat. But only one to wear it' Overnight the words 'Men kill animals, Men make the profits, and Men make sexist ads' appears. This billboard banditry is but one form of Guerrilla semiotics that attacks under the cover of night to reinscribe the spaces of the city with messages that do not originate from points of money, power and privilege.
Culture Jamming, Guerrilla Semiotics, Night Discourse, whatever the label, potentially achieves two simultaneous political objectives. First it draws attention to the way the urban environment has been semanticisedㅡgiven a language and meaning of power, authority and commerce which creates and reproduce expected ways of thinking and acting. Second it creates new and alternative meanings ㅡit asserts the ability to read and write differently. As one billboard graffitist has put it: ( ... ... )