2011년 11월 6일 일요일

Dic: under (some of its usages reviewed)

■■ Collins 4 subject to the supervision, jurisdiction, control, or influence of
  ■ OALD 4 used to say who or what controls, governs, or manages someone or something
  ■ COBUILD 8 If something happens under a particular person or government, it happens when that person or government is in power.

  • The country is now under martial law
  • The coinage was reformed under Elizabeth I (= when she was queen).
  • She has a staff of 19 working under her.
  • Under its new conductor, the orchestra has established an international reputation.
  • There would be no new taxes under his leadership.
  • ...the realities of life under a brutal dictatorship...
  ■ OALD 5 according to an agreement, a law or a system
  ■ COBUILD 7 If something happens under a law, agreement, or system, it happens because that law, agreement, or system says that it should happen.
  • Six suspects are being held under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.
  • Under the terms of the lease you had no right to sublet the property.
  • Is the television still under guarantee?
  • Under law, your employer has the right to hire a temporary worker to replace you...
  • Under the Constitution, you cannot be tried twice for the same crime.

■■ COLLINS 5 subject to (conditions); in (certain circumstances)
  ■ OALD 7 affected by something
  ■ OALD 6 experiencing a particular process
  ■ COBUILD 5 You can use under before a noun to indicate that a person or thing is being affected by something or is going through a particular process.
  • The wall collapsed under the strain.
  • I've been feeling under stress lately.
  • I'm under no illusions about what hard work this will be.
  • You'll be under anesthetic, so you won't feel a thing.
  • The hotel is still under construction.
  • The matter is under investigation.
  • ...fishermen whose livelihoods are under threat...
  • I'm rarely under pressure and my co-workers are always nice to me...
  • Firemen said they had the blaze under control...
  • He was rushed to court yesterday under armed guard.

CF. COLLINS 9 powered by: under sail

.... COLLINS, OALD, COBUILD

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