2018년 3월 31일 토요일

외서신간: 화폐// -Geld-, Für eine non-monetäre Ökonomie (2017)



출처: Stefan Heidenreich 지음. -Geld-, Für eine non-monetäre Ökonomie, Merve Verlag, Berlin, 2017.


출처 1: Geert Lovink, "Imagine there’s no money: dialogue between Stefan Heidenreich & Geert Lovink", Mar 2018.


출처 2: "For a Non-Money Economy": Excerpts from Stefan Heidenreich's new book on the post-currency future. 09.12.2017.

※ 발췌 (excerpt):

"컴퓨터 네트워크들이 거대해지고 모든 지불 행위를 처리하기에 충분할 만큼 빨라지면, 기술적인 면에서 알고리즘으로 화폐의 기능을 모방할 수 있다. 우리는 지금 바로 이 문턱에 도달한 상태고, 몇 년 내에 그 문턱을 넘어설 공산이 크다."

As mentioned, economic forms without money are not entirely new. Before the rise of money, larger economic units were administered by systems of inscription. Their remains are not only found in the ruins of temples, but also in the myths of guilt or debt(Schuld) in many religions. ( ... )

Historically speaking, economic relationships did not begin with exchange and certainly not with payment. What came first was giving, helping, and lending. Property was unknown. In small village communities, memory was sufficient to keep track, more or less, of who gave what to whom.

It was only with the introduction of writing that larger economic units began to be organized over a longer term. ( ... )
Money only came later. In a strictly technical sense, money is not a medium but a technique that uses all sorts of media to make notes transportable─and the process is read-only. For the economy, this meant that money was a fundamental innovation, for it converted the simple transaction of the gift into a symmetrical exchange. ( ... )

Peer-to-peer currencies and crypto-currencies are nothing fundamentally new to this system. Bitcoins are still a form of money, even if separated from a central institution. On the path towards the abolition of money, they merely represent a detour. The principle of payment itself is maintained by digital and peer-to-peer payment systems. They simply reproduce old money on the new-media foundation of a distributed network. This corresponds to the first step of a media transformation.

In media theory since Marshall McLuhan, it has been a commonplace to state that newly developed media are first used to reproduce old content. Media transformations often take place in two phases. First, there is a reproduction of the old in the new: in the case at hand, Bitcoin is the internet’s replication of money. Only in the second phase will it become clear what kind of new life the new medium can develop. This step is still to come for money. It will lie in the takeover of economic functions of money by way of intelligent networks.

The most important thing about peer-to-peer currencies is the architecture in the background, the so-called blockchain. This represents the foundation for a decentralized technique of administration by which transactions can be communicated anonymously and examined by anyone. The technique works for money just as well as for other moneyless and decentralized systems of notation. Therefore, the blockchain represents a possible building block for an economy after money.

출처 3: http://www.stefanheidenreich.de/non-monetaere-oekonomie/


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