2014년 12월 12일 금요일

[발췌: UN ECAFE's] Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East (1949)

출처: United Nations, Department of Economic Affairs, Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East 1949, prepared by the Secretariat of the Economic Commission For Asia and the Far East (New York: Lake Success, 1950)
자료: http://www.unescap.org/publications/survey/surveys/survey1949-4.pdf



※ 발췌 (excerpts):

CHAPTER 16
Economic Planning

Total economic planning, under which the resources of a country are allocated and utilized by the state in accordance with a predetermined plan for a fixed period of time, has not been applied to any of the countries in Asia and the Far East, although in parts of China under the control of the People's Government, and to a lesser extent in Burma, a trend in that direction has been recently visible. Other countries in the region have adopted partial economic planning, whereby the State undertakes to plan and develop these resources considered essential to the development and strengthening of the national economy, with the cooperation of private enterprise. Private enterprise is supervised, controlled and assisted by the Government. Under this arrangement, initiated during war-time and extended in post-war years, national development plans have been prepared which in some cases extend to most branches of national economy and others cover only a few limited fields where planned development appears desirable or imperative. The plans differ in the scope covered, degree of definiteness, assignment of priorities and possibility of implementation, but the objectives to be achieved are more or less similar.


OBJECTIVES OF ECONOMIC PLANNING

Four principal objectives in the economic plans of countries in the region may be distinguished, namely, industrialization, economic independence, rehabilitation and recovery, and improvement of the balance-of-payments position. ( ... ... )


PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION

Problems in implementing economic development projects are complex and interrelated. The three key economic problems relate to financing, the supply of scarce factors of production and industrial policy. The urgency to find solution varies  widely from country to country and from project to project, but the problems are common to all.

( ... ... )

(1) Financing

 (1.1) Hoarding and real estate investment

 (1.2) Lack of adequate financial institutions

(2) Supply of Scarce Factors of Production

 (2.1) Shortage of fuel and power

 (2.2) Shortage of capital goods

 (2.3) Inadequate supply of raw and auxiliary materials

 (2.4) Inadequate supply of transport facilities

 (2.5) Need of technical and managerial personnel

(3) Industrial Policy

 (3.1) Sequence of industrial development

 (3.2) Scope of state enterprise

 (3.3) Protective trade restrictions

To sum up, the problems of implementing economic plans in the region are complex and interrelated. The increase in economic planning is unquestionably one of the most significant post-war phenomena in Asia and the Far East. Nevertheless, the amount of planning already accomplished to date indicates that inadequacy of sound planning remains an important obstacle to economic development. ( ...


APPENDIX: POST-WAR ECONOMIC PLANNING IN JAPAN


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