2014년 9월 2일 화요일

[자료] The Handbook of Sustainability Literacy (University of Brighton)

출처: University of Brighton, http://arts.brighton.ac.uk/stibbe-handbook-of-sustainability

The Handbook of Sustainability Literacy: multimedia version. Edited by Poppy Villiers-Stuart and Arran Stibbe

You can browse this online resource by chapters from the paperback, additional chapters as well as Video interviews.

In this ground-breaking book, leading sustainability educators are joined by literary critics, permaculturalists, ecologists, artists, journalists, engineers, mathematicians and philosophers in a deep reflection on the skills people need to survive and thrive in the challenging conditions of the 21st century. Responding to the threats of climate change, peak oil, resource depletion, economic uncertainty and energy insecurity demands the utmost in creativity, ingenuity and new ways of thinking in order to reinvent both self and society. The book covers a wide range of skills and attributes from technology appraisal to ecological intelligence, and includes active learning exercises to help develop those skills.

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Chapters from the paperback: http://arts.brighton.ac.uk/stibbe-handbook-of-sustainability/chapters

※ 발췌 (excerpts of which):

Part 1: Skills for a changing world

Chapter 6: Commons Thinking: the ability to envisage and enable a viable future through connected action

By Justin Kenrick, University of Glasgow, and PEDAL--Portbello Transition Town

What is Commons Thinking?

The further we move into this century, the more urgently we realise that we need to relearn the political and personal skills of envisaging and enabling a viable future. This skill is not new: it is at the heart of commons regimes the world over. Commons regimes manages socio-environmental relations in ways that attend to the finite nature of human and natural systems in a way whichㅡparadoxicallyㅡensures their infinite abundance continues. Vandana Shiva notes that in Commons or Sustenance Regimes 'People work directly to provide the conditions necessary to maintain their lives ... Sustenance economies exist even before where capital markets do not. Yer capital's market cannot exist without the sustenance economy because externalising the social burden is the very basis of profits and capital accumulation' (2005: 17)

The Commons are life-sustaining or life-enhancing resources and services that have not been divided up and assigned a monetary value in the global economy but instead are sharedㅡaccording to evolving arrangements and agreementsㅡamong members of a community or group. They range from the air we breath, pollination provided by bees, land that provides food for gathering, sharing, cultivating and dwelling rather than selling, to libraries, public parks, pavements we walk along, and on to childcare, care for the elderly and words of comfort given freely and willingly rather than at an hourly rate. Pitted against the Commons, however, are the forces of Enclosure, which attempt to appropriate, own and sell resources that were once accessible not thought the power of money but through the rights and responsibilities gained by being a member of a community. The processes of Enclosure spread from England to the rest of the British Isles: dispossessing people of their land, displacing them, and using these same people to colonise and appropriate the land of peoples in Commons regimes the world over. However Commons regimes continue all over the world. These range from place-based communities agreeing how to use and share resources for the well-being of all their members (whether in the rainforests of Central Africa or through community buyouts on the west coast of Scotland) to emerging communities of practiceㅡsuch as educators passionate about sustainability and empowerment. Wherever and whenever people find ways to ensure that our well-being ensure the well-being of othersㅡand to refuse the logic that asserts that our well-being depend on exploiting (human and ecological) othersㅡthen we are re-assuring Commons processes and resisting processes of Enclosure which now threaten us with extinction.

The chapter aims to describe one important skill for rebuilding political, community and personal resilience: the ability to think in a Common way. This way of thinking is crucial to tackling the root causes of economic and ecological meltdown, to restoring the local, national and global Commons, and so recovering a future that can oftenㅡto say the leastㅡseem precarious. Commons regimes persist and re-emerge wherever people retain the political space to concern themselves with maintaining social and ecological resilience. They persist in the face of pressure from more powerful outside forces which seek to exploit, in a short-sighted way, the social and ecological resources upon which the community depends.

Commons thinking involves identifying the way one is complicit in the Enclosure or destruction of the Commons, in order to extricate oneself from such processes and instead identify with and strengthen the process that maintain abundance for all. In essence, Commons approaches assume a world of abundant relations from which individual entities emerge and are sustained, whereas the Western dominance perspective assumes a world of scarcity where discreet entities are brought into relationship through process of control and competition.

Putting it bluntly, these contrasting problem solving approaches can be thought of in terms of:

A Commons approach which assumes that:
  • we live in a common life-world upon which we all depend,
  • any problems stem from a breakdown in relationships, and 
  • solutions are primarily about restoring these relationships

and a dominance approach which assumes that:
  • one's well-being ultimately depends on controlling the devalued other (whether other life forms, other humans, or other aspect of oneself),
  • problems are about the lack of such control, and
  • the solution involves the dominant realm (the mind, the 'developed' world, the adult, the expert, or humans in general) imposing control on the supposedly inferior realm.

How dominance thinking misrepresents the Commons

When the 'Commons' is referred to at all in dominant thinking, it is usually in terms of the so-called 'Tragedy of the Commons', and this term is used to argue that left to ourselves (without the market and government to control our behaviour) we would each choose to exploit our ecological context for our own individual benefit even though this would inevitably lead to the destruction of the ecosystems (the Commons) on which we all depend. In fact, the opposite is the case. Even Garrett Hardin, the inventor of the term, later admitted that the phrase describes, not a Tragedy of 'Commons regimes', but a Tragedy of 'Open Access regimes' (Kirby at al 1995).

The irony here is that an excellent example of an 'Open Access regime' is that of capitalism, where the only understanding of being 'rational' is of acting in one's own immediate, narrow self-interest. 'Open access regime' describes situations where people are persuaded to act in a way that has no consideration for the longer term of themselves, their children or others. Commons regimes, in sharp contrast, always have unwritten or written rules about who can use what resources when and for how long, in order to ensure everyone's well-being over the longer term (Kirby at al 1995, Kenrick 2005). Some may be wealthier than others, and there is always negotiation, argument or conflict as the rules are changed, kept, or broken; but the basic principle is that you don't get a free lunch (getting a free lunch is exactly what advertisers, political parties and any other open access regime pundit tries to persuade us we can get). Commons regimes are how humans have effectively self-organised for millennia; and it is somewhat typical (in an Orwellian 1984 kind of way) that the term is then used to denote a 'tragedy' in order to assert that our only hope is a market system regulated by government, when it would be blindingly obvious to a Martian anthropologist that such a system has brought us to the brink of extinction, and that we need to change it fast.

Commons systems have recently re-emerged in the UKㅡboth through the land reform movement and community buy-outs that have swept through rural Scotland since the mid 90s, and through the proliferation of Transition initiatives (see Quilley, this volume) in Ireland, Scotland, England and Wales since the mid 2000s. These are recent examples of Commons regimes re-emerging because people realise that it is more rational to base their well-being on collectively caring about those around them, than to believe they canㅡover the long termㅡimprove their own lives at the expense of their neighbours. The Transition approach embodies Commons thinking and is a creative, empowering, and immediately gratifying proof thatㅡif we come at problems from a Commons perspectiveㅡour solutions will improve life for us all, rather than deal with symptoms in way that exacerbate the original problem.

Naming the problem: Ecological Collapse, or why it is Rational to be Scared

( ... ... )

Recovering a Commons way of thinking, or why it is Rational to be hopeful

Moving towards a society based on Commons sufficiency requires recovering a Commons way of thinking and relinquishing dominance thinking, the dualistic problem solving approach underpinning non-egalitarian and unsustainable social systems. Several questions follow from this:

  • How do we make the transition from a system in which problems are made worse by the way solutions are imposedㅡimposed by a supposedly superior realm on a supposedly inferior realmㅡto a system that no longer divides the world into superior and inferior realms?
  • ...


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