출처: Dawn Burton (2008). Cross-Cultural Marketing: Theory, Practice and Relevance. Routledge, Nov. 21, 2008.
※ 발췌 (excerpts): pp. 54~
Consumer resistance and boycotts
The concept of the ethical consumer is one that has generated considerable attention within recent years (see Harrison et al. 2006). A range of issues have been addressed including what constitutes ethical consumption (Barnett et al. 2006), historical approaches to consumer activism (Lang and Gabriel 2006), pressure groups and the campaigns they develop to influence the behaviour of companies (Harrison 2006; Kozinets and Handelman 2004), ethical consumer behaviour (Worcester and Dawkins 2006; Shaw 2006), and the development of corporate strategy in response to consumer concerns (Adams and Zutshi 2006). Others have focused on whether consumers can escape the power and lure of the market in everyday life (Firat and Venkatesh 1995), and commitment to boycotting action(MIller 2001). Kozinets (2002) provides an example of the Burning Man festival in the USA, a week-long, anti-market event that promotes itself as a temporary antidote to consumer culture. Participants engage in debates about corporate greed, passive consumption, employ alternative exchange modes beyond money, and share experience about alternative ways of life.
A useful summary of academic research pertaining to consumer motivations for boycott participation has been provided by Klein, Smith and John (2004). They found that during 1990s, businesses were reporting that boycotts were occurring more frequently and were often successful. Furthermore, boycotts were more likely to be focused on corporate practices of specific companies than a broad remit, such as improving civil rights. Recent examples have included the multi-country boycott of Nike, as a response to the sweatshop conditions operated by their Asian suppliers. Because of the significant investment corporations expend in brand building, developing their reputations and a wider public interest in corporate social responsibility, they become more vulnerable to the actions of boycotts. Klein et al.'s research demonstrated that four factors influenced consumer boycott participation in the USA: the desire to make a difference; scope for self-enhancement; an awareness of counterarguments that prevent boycotting; and finally, the costs to the boycotter in terms of constraining their consumption.
( ... )