2013년 7월 28일 일요일

[발췌: A.O. Ebenstein's Friedrich Hayek] The Fatal Conceit

출처: A. O. Ebenstein, Friedrich Hayek: A Biography (2001, 2003)
자료: 구글도서

A Chapter the title of which is "The Fatal Conceit" (p. 306)

※ 발췌 / excerpts of which

pp. 306~307 unavailable.

p. 308:

( ... ... ) productive as possibleㅡas they can. Rules are necessary in every society. The golden question is what rules should be.

  As Hayek completed ^Law, Legislation and Liberty^ during the later 1970s, he was reluctant to publish what he thought would be his last major work without "at least indicating in what direction" his ideas were heading. He added an epilogue, the Hobhouse Lecture, to the work, which expressed "more directly the general view of moral and political evolution which has guided me in the whole enterprise." [2] He originally thought that ^Law, Legislation and Liberty^ would be his final work, on which he endeavored longer than any other project during his career.

  16 years elapsed between when Hayek commenced work on ^Law, Legislation and Liberty^ in 1962 and when he completed it in 1978. He became more of a libertarian in the concluding chapter of ^Law, Legislation and Liberty^. In the third to last section, "The devolution of internal policy to local government," he spoke in favor of "most service activities rendered by central government" being "devolved to regional or local authorities." He thought the "result would be the transformation of local and even regional governments into quasi-commercial corporations competing for citizens."[3]

  Hayek foresaw a communitarian future through the implementation of libertarian practices. Communitarianism is the supremacy of local values and local institutions, and of diversity among communities. Communitarianism is not similar values and institutions throughout a geographical area. Communitarianism is diversity of communities, not necessarily diversity in communities. Diversity is differentiation. Singularity of communities is uniformity, not diversity.

  At the same time, true communitarianism is not the preservation of past mode of human society and organization for their own sake. Writing eloquently that it is desirable, both for individuals and for society as a whole, to allow the disappearance of past, premodern ways of life, Hayek stated that " We should be showing more respect for the dignity of man if we allowed certain ways of life to disappear altogether instead of preserving them as specimens of a past age." [4] The communities that emerge in a libertarian order are those that are chosen by their adult members as long as they do not physically harm others.

  In the penultimate section of ^Law, Legislation and Liberty^, "the abolition of the government monopoly of services," Hayek wrote the most libertarian sentiments of his career. He stated that there is "of course no need for central government to decide who should be entitled to render different services, and it is highly undesirable that it should possess mandatory powers to do so. This means that any governmental agency allowed to use its taxing power to finance such services ought to be required to refund any taxes raised for these purposes to all those who prefer to get the services in some other way." [5] These words were even more significant because of the governmental services to which he applied themㅡ"without exception to all those services of which the government possesses a legal monopoly, with the only exception of maintaining and enforcing the law and  maintaining for this purpose an armed forces, i.e. all those from education to transport and communications, including post, telegraph, telephone and broadcasting services, all the so-called 'public utilities,' the various 'social' insurance and, above all, the issue of money." In the last pages of ^Law, Legislation and Liberty^, published in 1979, Hayek the classical liberal became Hayek the libertarian.[6]

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