2013년 3월 30일 토요일

[발췌: Milton Friedman's] The Goldwater View of Economics (1964)


출처: The New York Times, October 11, 1964, Section Magazine 

* * *

※ 발췌 (excerpt):

What is the economic philosophy of Barry Goldwater? (...)

Yet the philosophy is far more important than the views on particular issues. (...)

Freedom and opportunity are Senator Goldwater's basic goals for mankind: freedom of the individual to pursue his own interests so long as he does not interfere with the freedom of others to do likewise; opportunity for the ordinary man to use his resources as effectively as possible to advance the well-being of himself and his family. Government exists to protect this freedom and to widen this opportunity.

Throughout history, the great enemy of freedom has been concentrated powerㅡprivate or governmental. If freedom is to be secure, power must be limited and it must be dispersed. The most effective way simultaneously to disperse private power and to limit governmental power is to rely primarily on voluntary exchange through a free marketㅡcompetitive capitalismㅡto organize economic activity. The most effective way to disperse the remaining governmental power is to rely on a constitutional system of checks and balances, and a federal system of decentralized political responsibility.

(...)

Wherever men are today reasonably free and relatively prosperous, they have gained their freedom and earned their prosperity through a system based on private property, free enterprise, and free markets. There is not a single exception. Centralized governmental control over the economy has been able to produce spectacular achievementsㅡfrom the pyramids of ancient Egypt to the sputniks and space exploits of Russia today. Such a system has been able to attain great military strength. But it has never been able to achieve either freedom or a decent standard of living for the ordinary man.

The Berlin Wall is a dramatic monument to the superiority of the free economy. (...) The result is clear for all to seeㅡgrowth and prosperity under freedom versus stagnation, deprivations and misery under collectivism.

Of course, every economy is a mixture. In all, economic activity is partly organized through a free market, partly through rigid customary relations, partly through explicit governmental authority. But the proportions vary widely. Freedom and prosperity have gone along with a mixture in which the market is dominant; tyranny and misery, with one in which custom and the government sector are dominant. Yet the evidence is often misread. After a talk I once gave in Kuala Lumpur, I was informed that the success of the United States was attributable to the 20% of socialism in its mixture, and the failure of India to the 20% of free enterprise in its!

(...) Government must provide for the common defense, preserve law and order, define the rights of men and enforce contracts among them, keep markets free, provide a stable monetary and fiscal framework for the private economy, construct public facitilites that for one reason or another cannot be provided by the market, and assist in easing distress and relieving misery.

It is always tempting to have governments go still further, to have them try to do directly for people what the people seem at the moment not to be able or to want to do for themselves. But history teaches us that this course seldom achieves the intended objectives; that it generally only weakens the capacity of the ordinary man to provide for his own needs. In addition, it has unintended consequences. Governmental power, once established, gravitates into the hands of private groups that use it for their own selfish purposesㅡgroups that, by forming a coalition with government, are able to strip the consumer of the protection of the market place.

(...) five issues: (1) The economics of defense; (2) Federal expenditures and taxation; (3) Business-cycle policy; (4) Welfare program; (5) Federal-state relations.


The Economics of Defense

Federal Expenditures and Taxation

(...)

댓글 쓰기