9△ from what something shows or says; according to something.
- By my watch it is two o'clock.
- I could tell by the look on her face that something terrible had happened.
- By law, you are a child until you are 18.
7. PREP△ If something must be done by law, it happens according to the law. If something is the case by particular standards, it is the case according to the standards.
- Pharmacists are required by law to give the medicine prescribed by the doctor.
- evening wear that was discreet by his standards.
- By this strict definition, few markets in the U.S. economy are perfectly competitive.