2011년 3월 5일 토요일

[자료] Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642)

자료 1: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardinal_Richelieu

Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642) was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. (...) Consecrated as a bishop in 1608, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a Cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. (...)

  • 1st Chief Minister of the French King: In office(12 August 1624 – 4 December 1642), Monarch(Louis XIII of France) 
  • Bishop of Luçon: In office(18 December 1606 – 29 April 1624) 
  • Cardinal-Priest with no Title assigned: In office(5 September 1622 – 4 December 1642) 
  • Territorial abbot Coadjutor of Cluny: In office(1627–1635)
  • Territorial abbot of Cluny: In office(1635 – 4 December 1642)
(...)  When he was five years old, his father died fighting in the French Wars of Religion,[4] leaving the family in debt; with the aid of royal grants, however, the family was able to avoid financial difficulties. At the age of nine, young Richelieu was sent to the College of Navarre in Paris to study philosophy.[5] Thereafter, he began to train for a military career.[6] (...)

King Henry III had rewarded Richelieu's father for his participation in the Wars of Religion by granting his family the bishopric of Luçon.[8] The family appropriated most of the revenues of the bishopric for private use; they were, however, challenged by clergymen, who desired the funds for ecclesiastical purposes. In order to protect the important source of revenue, Richelieu's mother proposed to make her second son, Alphonse, the bishop of Luçon.[9] Alphonse, who had no desire to become a bishop, became instead a Carthusian monk.[10] Thus, it became necessary that the younger Richelieu join the clergy. He had strong academic interests, and threw himself into studying for his new post.

In 1606 King Henry IV nominated Richelieu to become Bishop of Luçon.[11] As Richelieu had not yet reached the official minimum age, it was necessary he journey to Rome for a special dispensation from the Pope. This secured, Richelieu was consecrated bishop in April, 1607. Soon after he returned to his diocese in 1608, Richelieu was heralded as a reformer.[12] He became the first bishop in France to implement the institutional reforms prescribed by the Council of Trent between 1545 and 1563.[13] (...)

In 1614, the clergymen of Poitou demanded Richelieu to be one of their representatives to the States-General.[15] There, he was a vigorous advocate of the Church, arguing that it should be exempt from taxes and that bishops should have more political power. He was the most prominent clergyman to support the adoption of the decrees of the Council of Trent throughout France;[16] the Third Estate (commoners) was his chief opponent in this endeavour. At the end of the assembly, the First Estate (the clergy) chose him to deliver the address enumerating its petitions and decisions.[17] Soon after the dissolution of the Estates-General, Richelieu entered the service of King Louis XIII's wife, Anne of Austria, as her almoner.[18]  (...)

자료 2: http://www.larousse.fr/encyclopedie/personnage/Richelieu/140941

Armand Jean du Plessis, cardinal de Richelieu

(...) il fut un prêtre convenable, un évêque attaché à ses devoirs, même un évêque réformateur dans l'esprit tridentin, et il eut le mérite, durant quinze ans, de 1608 à 1623, de diriger avec compétence l'« évêché crotté » de Luçon, qui ne pouvait suffire à ses ambitions. (...)

자료 3: http://enc.daum.net/dic100/contents.do?query1=b06r3092b

(...) 어머니는 세 아들과 두 딸의 장래를 생각해 가족의 얼마 안 되는 재산을 재건하기 시작했다. 가장 중요한 재산은 앙리 3세가 1516년의 종교협약(Concordat)에 따라 리슐리외 집안에 하사한 라로셸 근처의 루송 주교령에서 나오는 성직록이었다. 그러나 대성당 참사회의 불온한 움직임 때문에 이 성직록은 취소될 위기에 (...) 공부를 마친 뒤에도 교회법에서 정한 성직 임명 연령에 미치지 못했기 때문에 교황의 특별 허가를 받아야 했다. 교황의 허가를 얻기 위해 그는 로마로 갔다. 파울루스 5세는 남을 매료하는 이 젊은이의 태도에 매혹되었다. 1607년 4월 17일 그는 22세의 나이로 사제 서품을 받고 루송 주교 관구를 맡게 되었다. 그가 루송에 도착했을 때 그를 맞이한 것은 종교전쟁으로 황폐해진 교구와 적대적인 참사회, 그리고 타락한 성직자들이었지만 그의 적대자들은 주교관에서 발산되는 낯설고도 신선한 권위에 바로 굴복했다. (...) 사리사욕에 눈이 어두운 세도가들은 자신의 이권을 위해 아귀다툼을 벌였다. 그들은 왕권에 불복할 뿐만 아니라 무장 병력을 파병해 약탈을 자행했으며, 궁정과 복잡한 협상을 벌였다. 루송 주교 리슐리외도 이런 협상에 한 번 중재자로 참여했는데 이 경력 덕분에 1614년의 삼부회에 푸아투의 성직자 대표로 선출되었다. (....)

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