자료 1. Ogechukwu Ezekwem. "The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa, by Frederick John Dealtry Lugard (1965)", NOT EVEN PAST, May 5, 2014.
※ 발췌 (excerpt):
According to Lugard, Britain held a dual responsibility in Africa: administration and economic benefits for the metropole, as well as the "native's" uplifting. His recommendations for Africa's governance revolved around three principles─decentralization, continuity, and cooperation.
- Decentralization at all levels of government, with a strong coordinating authority in the center, allowed for greater efficiency.
- Continuity was vital because Africans trusted foreigners reluctantly. Therefore, effective British officers should retain their posts without undue interruptions. He also proposed that, during Governors’ annual leaves, they should be represented by a Lieutenant Governor, selected from the Provincial Administrative Staff, rather than the Colonial Secretary.
- Decentralization and continuity could only be achieved if cooperation existed within the administrative chains, especially between the provincial staff and local rulers. The success of Lugard's indirect Rule policy─administration through local chiefs, under the close supervision of British colonial officers─a system that he tested comprehensively in Nigeria, depended on cooperation. He also encouraged local heirs’ education in order to prevent the emergence of a separate educated class that might challenge the authority of accepted rulers.
( ... ... )
자료 2. "DUAL MANDATE, AFRICA (Western Colonialism)", what-when-how: In Depth Tutorials and Information (역사 교육 사이트인 것 같다)
※ 발췌 (excerpt):
( ... ... ) Britain as a colonizing power thus had a dual mandate: first, the exploitation of Africa's resources for imperial benefit; and second, the development of the continent.
자료 3. Gail M. Gerhart. "The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa", Foreign Affairs, September/October 1997