자료 1: Production boundary (OECD, Glossary of Statistical Terms)
- French Equivalent: Domaine de la production
- Definition: The production boundary includes:
- (a) the production of all individual or collective goods or services that are supplied to units other than their producers, or intended to be so supplied, including the production of goods or services used up in the process of producing such goods or services;
- (b) the own-account production of all goods that are retained by their producers for their own final consumption or gross capital formation;
- (c) the own-account production of housing services by owner-occupiers and of domestic and personal services produced by employing paid domestic staff.
- Hyperlink: http://esa.un.org/unsd/sna1993/introduction.asp
- Statistical Theme: National accounts
- Created on Tuesday, September 25, 2001
- Last updated on Wednesday, March 12, 2003
자료 2: UN Statistics Division, Concepts and Definitions: Economic activity
※ 발췌 (excerpt): Economically active population (paras. 2.237-2.239)
- The economically active population comprises all persons of either sex who provide the supply of labour during a specified time reference period, as employed or as unemployed, for the production of economic goods and services, where the concept of economic production is established with respect to the System of National Accounts (SNA) [n.1]. Activities are within the economic production boundary defined by the SNA if they comprise:
(a) Production of goods or services supplied, or intended to be supplied to units other than their producers, including the production of goods and services used up in the process of producing such goods or services (intermediate consumption);
(b) Production of all goods retained by their producers for their own final use (own-account production of goods);
(c) Production of housing services by owner-occupiers;
(d) Production of domestic and personal services produced by paid domestic staff.
- Own-account production of goods includes, for example, production of agricultural products and their subsequent storage; production of other primary products such as mining of salt, cutting of peat, supply of water; processing of agricultural products (the preparation of meals for own consumption is excluded); and other kinds of processing, such as weaving of cloth, dressmaking and tailoring; production of footwear, pottery, utensils or durables; making of furniture or furnishings; and major renovations, extensions to dwellings, replastering of walls or re-roofing by
- owners of owner-occupied dwellings. It is advisable for countries to develop a more extensive list of such own-account production activities considered to be within the SNA production boundary, so as to ensure that those involved in such activities are correctly classified as economically active. In principle, the production of all goods falls within the SNA production boundary, irrespective of whether the goods are intended for supply to other units or for the producers’ own final use. In practice, however, the production of a good for own final use within households should be recorded only if the amount of the good produced by households for their own final use is believed to be quantitatively important in relation to the total supply of that good in a country. According to the Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians, persons engaged in the production of goods for own final use within the same household should be considered as economically active only if such production comprises an important contribution to the total consumption of the household.
- Domestic or personal services provided by unpaid household members for final consumption within the same household are excluded from the economic production boundary and hence are not considered to be economic activities. (Examples are (a) the cleaning, decoration and maintenance of the dwelling occupied by the household, including small repairs of a kind usually carried out by tenants as well as owners; (b) the cleaning, servicing and repair of household durables or other goods, including vehicles used for household purposes; (c) the preparation and serving of meals; (d) the care, training and instruction of children; (e) the care of sick, infirm or old people; and (f) the transportation of members of the household or their goods.) Persons engaged in such activities may be included among “providers of non-paid social and personal services”.
자료 3: Statistics Finland, Production boundary
자료 4: 제3장 근로연령인구의 활동상태 간 이행에 대한 부가조사: 경제활동인구조사 신규 부가조사 주제선정 및 조사항목 개발
일(근로)의 개념에 대한 조작적 정의는 통계적으로 측정해야 하는 범위와 관련이 있다. 경제활동인구조사에서 측정하고 있는 경제활동은 UN의 국민계정체계(SNA, System of National Account)의 생산범위에 한정된다. 이에 따라 근로연령인구가 취업자로 분류되기 위해서는 수입을 목적으로 경제적인 재화와 서비스 생산에 노동력을 공급해야 한다. 가사, 육아, 가족돌봄과 같은 가구가 자가소비를 위해 생산한 서비스는 경제활동에 포함되지 않아 취업자로 분류되지 않는다. 가구의 자가소비를 위한 서비스를 경제활동에 포함하지 않는 이유는 이러한 활동을 경제활동에 포함할 경우 근로연령인구에 속하는 거의 모든 인구가 경제활동인구에 포함돼 근로연령인구를 활동상태에 따라 분류할 수 없어 노동통계 작성이 불가능해지기 때문이다(Hussmanns). 그러나 가사, 육아, 가족돌봄과 같은 무급 가사서비스를 경제활동으로 보지 않는 것에 대한 비판은 지속적으로 제기되어 왔다. 국민계정체계에서는 일반 생산범위(general production boundary) 개념을 통해 국민계정체계의 생산계정 작성에는 포함되지 않지만, 별도의 위성계정을 통해 무급가사서비스를 파악하도록 하고 있다. 그리고 ILO의 ICLS 결의안도 국민계정체계의 생산범위 내에서 경제활동을 측정하도록 하고 있지만, 무급가사서비스를 별도로 측정할 것을 권고해 왔다......