출처: David Abulafia (2011). The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean. Oxford University Press.
※ 발췌 (excerpt): pp. 275~
THE THIRD MEDITERRANEAN, 600-1350
One reason the Pisans and Genoese were able to launch their own fleets was the collapse of central authority in northern Italy. The 'kingdom of Italy' had little more than a notional existence, and its ruler was, since the tenth century, the German king, who was also entitled to claim the crown of the western Roman Empire, revived in 962 with the papal coronation of Otto I. The power of the local imperial viscounts withered; the day-do-day government of these and other towns fell into the hands of the local patricians. By the beginning of the 12th century they began to organize themselves into self-governing communities─historians use the terms 'commune' and 'city-republic', but they adopted a variety of terms including, in Genoa, 'company' (^compagna^), which literally meant 'those who break bread(^pane^) together'. Indeed, the government of Genoa after 1100 was very like the management of a business partnership. The ^compagna^ was formed for a limited period of a few years, to resolve a specific problem such as the building of a crusade fleet, or political tensions that, in Genoa, sometimes resulted in assassinations and street-fighting. The commune was in some respects a public institution, embracing the whole community, but in other very important respects it was a private league, though the distinction between 'public' and 'private' was not clear in the minds of twelfth-century Genoese. The city was littered with private enclaves, the property of monasteries and nobles, little pieces of exempt territory that were only very gradually brought under the control of the presiding officers of the ^compagna^. These officers took the resounding title of 'consul', proving an awareness of the Roman republic model, though there were as many as six consuls when the first ^compagna^ came into being.[n.7] As in ancient Rome, the system of election was carefully manipulated by those with real power, and in this period they were always drawn from the patrician class.[n.8]
These patricians created the trading empire of Genoa, and similar development occurred in Pisa. ( ... ... )