출처: R. H. Tawney, ^Land and Labor in China^ (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1932)
※ 차례 (contents):
PREFATORY NOTE (7)
I. INTRODUCTORY (11)
II. THE RURAL FRAMEWORK (23)
III. THE PROBLEMS OF THE PEASANT (51)
- (1) METHODS OF CULTIVATION (51)
- (2) MARKETING (54)
- (3) CREDIT (58)
- (4) LAND TENURE (63)
- (5) POVERTY, WAR AND FAMINE (69)
- (1) ANALOGOUS PROBLEMS ELSEWHERE (78)
- (2) AGRARIAN POLICY (82)
- (3) COMMUNICATIONS (85)
- (4) SCIENCE AND EDUCATION (88)
- (5) CO-OPERATION (92)
- (6) LAND TENURE (97)
- (7) DROUGHT AND FLOOD (102)
- (8) POPULATION, MIGRATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY (103)
- (1) THE LEGACY OF THE PAST (109)
- (2) THE GROWTH OF CAPITALIST INDUSTRY (121)
- (3) PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL POLICY (140)
APPENDIX (196) / INDEX (203)
* * *
※ 발췌 (excerpts):
(p. 011-1) China moved till yesterday in an orbit of her own, little influencing the West and little influenced by it. Partly because of her long isolation, partly because the foundations of her own civilisation were singularly stable, partly as a result of the new resources of science and technique to which the West became heir in the 19th century, the perspective of her recent history has been foreshortened. She had mastered certain fundamental arts of life at a time when the West was still ignorant of them. Like her peasants, who ploughed with iron when Europe used wood, and continued to plough with it when Europe used steel, she carried one type of economic system and social organisation to a high level of achievements, and was not conscious of the need to improve or supersede it. For ages the most powerful agent in spreading civilisation in the East, it was not till less than a century ago that she was forced against her will into continuous and intimate contact with the civilisation of the West.
(p.011-2) The phenomenon which disturbed the balance was the rise of the great industry, first in England, and then, a generation later, on the Continent of Europe, and in the United States. ( ... ... )
(p. 019-1) Such contrast between the static civilisation of China─as it was formerly called─and the mobile economy of the West are easily drawn and easily misinterpreted. They are misinterpreted when the differences which they emphasise are assumed to be the expression of permanent characteristics. History, with its record of the movement of leadership from region to region, lends little support to the theory that certain peoples are naturally qualified for success in the economic arts, and others unfitted for it, even were the criteria of such success less ambiguous than they are.
(p. 019-2) The traditionalism which has sometimes been described as a special mark of Chinese economic life is the characteristic, not of China, but of one phase of civilisation which Europe has shared with her.
- Rapid economic changes as a fact, and continuous economic progress as an ideal, are the notes, not of the history of the West, but of little more than its last four centuries; and the European who is baffled by what appears to him the conservatism of China would be equally bewildered could he meet his own ancestors.
- During nearly a thousand years, the crafts of the husbandman, the weaver, the carpenter and the smith saw as little alteration in the West as they have seen in the East. In the former, as in the latter, common men looked to the good days of the past, not to the possibilities of the future, for a standard of conduct and criterion of the present; accepted the world, with plague, pestilence and famine, as heaven had made it; and were incurious as to the arts by which restless spirits would improve on nature, if not actually suspicious of them as smelling of complicity with malignant powers. In the former, as in the latter, political confusion, civil disturbance, brigandage and recurrent starvation were for generations the rule rather than the exception.
- It is true, however, that, for wide ranges of Chinese life, the contrast is valid, though the area to which it applies is year by year contracting. In technological equipment and industrial organisation, as in the foundations of law, psychology and social habits, on which both ultimately rest, the greater part of the West lives on one plane, the greater part of China on another.
(p. 020-1) What is true to-day is less true than yesterday, and may be false tomorrow. The forces which have caused the economic development of China and the West to flow in different channels are a fascinating theme for historical speculation, but they are one on which a layman is precluded from entering. Naturally, he will remind himself that the question is not merely why the economic life of China has not change more, but why that of the West has changed so much. ( ... ... )