2012년 5월 28일 월요일

[메모] SNA와 거주 개념

자료 1: 우리나라의 국민계정 체계(한국은행, 2010)

국내경제(total economy)는 한 국가의 경제적 영역거주하는 모든 제도단위로 구성되는데 한 국가의 경제영역이란 기본적으로 지리적 영역을 의미하지만 정확히 일치하는 것은 아니다. 

SNA에서 거주의 개념은 국적이나 법적 기준에 의한 것이 아니라 한 나라의 경제적 영역에서 경제적 이익의 중심을 갖고 있을 때, 즉 동 영역에서 일정기간 이상(실무적으로는 1년 이상) 경제활동에 종사할 때 그 나라의 거주자로 간주한다. 거주자는 비거주자, 즉 다른 경제영역의 거주자와도 거래를 하는데 이러한 거래를 국외거래라 하며 국외거래계정에 기록한다. 거주자와 비거주자간의 거래를 모아 놓은 국외부문(the rest of the world)은 SNA에서 하나의 제도부문과 같은 역할을 수행한다.

자료 2: http://www.unescap.org/stat/meet/sna-april2005/sna_residence&change.pdf

자료 3: http://www.pftac.org/filemanager/files/NA_2012/L1.pdf
"SNA update: center of predominant economic interest"
자료 4: 1993 SNA Update Information - Country comments for issue: Predominant center of economic interest (as term)


자료 5: Understanding National Accounts (OECD, 2006)

(...) 9. Exports and imports of goods and services: (...) A country’s economic territory is the geographic area corresponding to the nation state. It includes its air space, its territorial waters, its territorial enclaves in the rest of the world (UK embassies in foreign countries, to take our current example) and free zones. Conversely, it excludes foreign embassies located in the UK. The definition of economic territory is important because only output taking place within the economic territory is recorded in the national accounts. A foreign subsidiary of a UK multinational is not productive in the sense used to draw up the UK national accounts, and its output is included in the national accounts of the country in which the subsidiary is located. (...)

(...) The concept of residence is associated with that of economic territory in the national accounts. A unit is said to be resident in a country when its “centre of economic interest” is situated in that country’s economic territory. This is usually taken to mean that the unit has carried out economic activity there for more than one year. Only resident units are included in the institutional sectors of the national accounts. Most firms, including unincorporated enterprises that have an activity in the territory, are regarded as resident. For households, the test is where they spend their income. Only those households that make most of their consumption expenditures on the territory are regarded as resident. Households whose members work in the country but make most of their consumption expenditures abroad are excluded. This means, for example, that seasonal workers coming from another country to work for a few months a year in the United Kingdom are not regarded as resident, and their disposable income is not included in household disposable income in the UK national accounts. Conversely, certain British workers living and consuming in the United Kingdom while working in Ireland or another country are included as resident households. Foreign tourists who consume in the United Kingdom only for a short period (generally a few weeks) are not counted as resident.

The rest of the world is composed of all non-resident units carrying out transactions with the country under review (... ...)

(...) GDP vs. other aggregates

Why the bizarre title “gross domestic product,” or GDP? It should be clear by now that “product” describes what one is trying to measure, i.e. the result of production. “Domestic” indicates that the output measured is produced within the economic territory of the country, or the group of countries, concerned. (It is in fact entirely possible to calculate GDP for a group of countries, such as that of the euro area.) “Gross” means the consumption of fixed capital is not deducted (see below).

“Domestic” is also in opposition to “national”, as in GNI or gross national income, which is the current title of what was referred to as GNP, or gross national product, in previous systems of national accounts (“GNP” is still widely used out of habit). GDP measures the total production occurring within the territory, while GNI measures the total income (excluding capital gains and losses) of all economic agents residing within the territory (households, firms and government institutions). (... ...)

자료 6: The System of Macroeconomic Accounts Statistics: An Overview Statistics Department (IMF)

(...) Residence

All macroeconomic statistics relate to an economy—defined to comprise all its resident institutional units. This section defines (1) resident, (2) nonresident, (3) economic territory, and (4) economic interest; it also discusses how institutional sectors relate to residence.

Residents designates institutional units that have a closer tie with the economic territory of the country in question than with any other country. Residence is not based on nationality or currency of denomination; rather, it is based on where the unit’s center of economic interest lies.

As for nonresidents, units that are not residents of the given economy are residents of the rest of the world and are termed nonresidents.

The economic territory of a country consists of the geographic territory administered by a government. Within the territory, persons, goods, and capital circulate freely. It includes airspace, territorial waters, and continental shelf lying in international waters over which the country enjoys exclusive rights or over which it has, or claims to have, jurisdiction with respect to economic exploitation. It also includes territorial enclaves in the rest of the world, such as embassies, consulates, and military bases.

Regarding economic interest, an institutional unit has a center of economic interest within a country when there exists some location—dwelling, place of production, or other premises—within the economic territory of the country from which the unit engages in economic activities significantly, either indefinitely or over a finite but long period. Normally, a one-year rule is applied.

How do the institutional sectors relate to residence?

In relation to the general government sector, a country’s general government units at all levels (central, state, local) are regarded as resident of that country—that is, part of the domestic economy—even when they carry out activities abroad. Thus, any embassies, consulates, military bases, and other general government units located abroad are treated as residents of the home country, as are its nationals assigned to such agencies. Conversely, the embassies, consulates, and so forth maintained by a foreign government in a given country are nonresidents, as are their personnel who are not recruited locally. Similarly, international organizations whose members are governments are treated as nonresidents of the country in which they are located. However, the residency of the staff of an international organization is determined according to the criteria applied to other households in the country.


자료 7: 알기쉬운 경제지표 해설(한국은행, 2010)

(...) 첫째, 국민소득은 생산지표인 국내총생산(GDP)과 소득지표인 국민총소득(GNI: Gross National Income)으로 구분할 수 있다.

현대 국가들은 국가 간에 자동차와 같은 상품을 팔고 사는 것은 물론 노동이나 자본과 같은 생산요소도 활발하게 거래하고 있다. 즉, 자국의 생산자가 외국인을 고용하여 생산을 하기도 하고 반대로 자국인이 다른 나라에 나가 생산에 참여하기도 한다.

이렇듯 생산요소의 국가간 이동에 따라서 국민경제의 소득규모는 「영토」개념을 기준으로 하여 측정한 국내총생산「거주성」개념을 기준으로 측정한 국민총소득의 두 가지로 파악할 수 있다.
  • 국내총생산(GDP)은 한나라의 영역내에서 가계, 기업, 정부 등의 모든 경제주체가 일정기간 동안 생산활동에 참여한 결과 창출된 부가가치를 시장가격으로 평가해서 합계한 것으로서 국내에 거주하는 생산자가 자국의 생산요소와 외국의 생산요소를 결합하여 발생시킨 부가가치를 말한다. 
  • 한편 국민총소득(GNI)은 한나라의 국민국내외 생산활동에 참여한 대가로 받은 소득의 합계로서 이 지표에는 자국민(거주자)이 국외로부터 받은 소득(국외수취요소소득)은 포함되는 반면에 국내총생산 중에서 외국인(비거주자)에게 지급한 소득(국외지급요소소득)은 제외된다.
명목 국민총소득(GNI) = 명목 국내총생산(GDP) + 명목 국외순수취요소소득(국외수취요소소득-국외지급요소소득)

※ 메모: 이 언술을 기초로 판단한다면 거주성 개념을 GNI 통계에 반영하는 항목인 국외수취(및 국외지급) 요소소득을 판가름하는 기준이 거주성이 될 것이다.

(...)

[국제수지표 부분의 해당 텍스트] 이때 거주자와 비거주자의 구분은 경제주체가 단순히 어디에 살고 있으며 국적이 어디냐 하는 지리적 영역이나 법률상의 국적보다는 경제활동에 있어 이익의 중심(center of economic interest)이 어디에 있느냐 하는 점을 기준으로 한다. 통상적으로 경제주체가 1년 이상 어떤 나라에서 경제활동 및 거래를 수행하거나 그러한 의도가 있을 경우 이익의 중심이 그 나라에 있다고 본다. 이를 테면 개인의 경우에는 외국인일지라도 1년 이상 우리나라에 거주하면서 생산활동 에 참여할 때는 이익의 중심이 우리나라에 있는 것으로 보아 거주자로 간주하고 해외교포는 우리나라 국적을 가지고 있다 하더라도 외국에서 경제활동을 수행하고 있으므로 비거주자가 된다. 기업의 경우에는 어느 나라 영토 내에서 영업을 하고 있는가에 따라 거주성을 구분하는데, 1년 이상 경제활동을 수행하거나 수행할 의도를 가지고 있어야 한다. 이와는 달리 외국 정부의 대사관, 영사관, 군사시설 등은 (... ...)

자료 7: Building the System of National Accounts - basic concepts

(...) The concept of economic territory in the 2008 SNA coincides with that of the Balance of payments and international investment position manual (BPM6), sixth edition.

The concept of residence is not based on citizenship or legal criteria. Having a centre of predominant economic interest in a territory implies being engaged for an extended period (usually one year or more) in economic activities in this territory (e.g. to have ownership of land or ownership of structures or to engage in production in a territory).

Some clarifications on residence: (...)

자료 7-1: Glossary: Total economy

Total economy is in the context of national accounts defined as the entire set of resident institutional units.

Related concepts


Source

  • The 2008 SNA, European Commission, IMF, OECD, UN, World Bank, 2009, Chapter IV: Institutional units and sectors, point 4.23]

자료 8: U.K. National Accounts - A Short Guide (2011)


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