출처: Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II
Preface to the second edition
(...) The basic problem, however, remains the same. It is the problem confronting every historical undertaking. Is it possible somehow to convey simultaneously both that conspicuous history which holds our attention by its continual and dramatic changesㅡand that other, submerged, history, almost silent and always discreet, virtually unsuspected either by its observers or its participants, which is little touched by the obstinate erosion of time? This fundamental contradiction, which must always lie at the centre of our thought, can be a vital tool of knowledge and research. Relevant to every area of human life, it may take on a variety of forms according to the terms of the comparison.
Historians have over the years grown accustomed to describing this contradiction in terms of structure and conjuncture, the former denoting long-term, the latter, short-term realities. Clearly there are different kinds of structure just as there are different kinds of conjuncture, and the duration of either structure or conjuncture may in turn vary. History accepts and discovers multidimensional explanations, [through:]
- reaching, as it were, vertically from one temporal plane to another.
- And on every plane there are also horizontal relationships and connections.
Preface to the First Edition
(...) This book is divided into three parts, each of which is itself an essay in gerneral explanation.
The first part is devoted to a historu whose passage is almost imperceptible, that of man in his relationship to the environment, a history in which all change is slow, a history of constant repetition, ever-recurring cycles. I could not neglect this almost timeless history, the story of man's contact with the inanimate, neither could I be satisfied with the traditional geographical introduction to history that oftern figures to little purpose at the beginning of so many books, with its descriptions of mineral deposit, types of agriculture, and typical flora, briefly listed and never mentioned again, as if the flowers did not come back every spring, the flocks of sheep migrate every year, or the the ships sail on a real sea that changes with the seasons.
On a different level from the first there can be distinguished another history, this time with slow but perceptible rhythms. If the expression had not be diverted from its full meaning, one could call it ^social history^, the history of groups and groupings. How these swelling currents affect Mediterranean life in generalㅡthis was the question I asked myself in the second part of the book, studying in turn economic systems, states, societies, civilizations and family, in order to convery more clearly my conception of history, attempting to show how all these deep-seated forces were at work in the complex arena of warfare. (...)
Lastly, the third part gives a hearing to traditional historyㅡhistory, one might say, on the scale not of man, but of individual men, what Paul Lacombe and Francois Siamand called 'histoire evenementielle', that is, the history of events: surface disturbances, crests of foam that the tides of history carry on their strong backs. A history of brief, rapid, nervous fluctuations, by definition ultra-sensitive; the least tremor sets all its antenne quivering. (...) We must learn to distrust this history with its still buring passions, as it was felt, described, and lived by contemporaries whose lives were as short and short-sighted as ours. It has the dimensions of their anger, dreams, or illusions. (...)
The final effect then is to dissect history into various planes, or to put it another way, to divide historical time into geographical time, social time, and individual time. Or, alternatively, to divide man into a multitude of selves. (...) ㅡ May 1946