2018년 3월 20일 화요일

Dic: 탐색 // warden과 서구 중세사회


출처 1: American Heritage

 (1) The chief administrative official of a prison.
 (2) An official charged with the enforcement of certain laws and regulations:  ex) an air raid warden.
 (3) Chiefly BrE.
   (a) The chief executive official in charge of a port or market.
   (b) Any of various crown officers having administrative duties.
   (c) One of the governing officials of certain colleges, schools, guilds, or hospitals; a trustee.
 (4) The chief executive of a borough in certain states.
 (5) A churchwarden.


출처 2: http://www.masonicdictionary.com/warden.html

"Ward" is of Medieval origin, having been used in early English, French, German,etc., always in the sense of [guarding] something, a meaning preserved in warden, guard, guardian, wary, ware, ward, etc. ( ... ... )


출처 3: Medieval Society and the Manor Court (Zvi Razi, Richard Michael Smith | Clarendon Press, 1996)


( ... ... ) In reality as in the statutes, the warden was deeply involved in the management of the college's estates and required a considerable degree of technical expertise.[주]12  Long-serving warden like Peter of Abingdon (1264-86), John of Wantage (fellow 1291-9, warden 1299-1328), and Robert of Tring (fellow 1313-28, warden 1328-51) must have acquired a detalied knowledge of a wide range of agricultural and tenurial matters.[주]13  One of the warden's main duties was to visit the college's manors each year to assess the harvest. It was this statutory annual visitation, often supplemented by further visits in the course of the year, which provied a constant framework for the personal transaction of business between the warden and the college's tenants. This recurring if sporadic personal contact between the warden and even the lowliest tenants at Thorncroft is a marked characteristic of the college's relationship with the peasant community, and it derived from the college's institutional nature. ( ... ... )

There can be no doubt that the warden was present in person at some sessions of the court. On 3 February 1289 for example it was recorded that 'Luke Tailor came to this court and did fealty before the warden for the tenement which he claims to hold of the said warden'. ( ... ... )


출처 4: What did people do in a Medieval City?

Government Occupations

These are the people who run things. They keep society moving smoothly, if they're good at what they do, and can bring society to a crunching halt, if they're not. Rife for corruption, government officials can play a significant role in many campaigns.

 - bailiff: ...
 - catchpole: ...
 - chancellor: ...
 - constable: the warden of a town or castle
 - diplomat: ...
 - emperor: ...
 - exchequer: the man responsible for the king's revenue
 - hayward: ...
 - herald: ...
 - jailer: ...
 - judge: a man who is responsible for deciding questions brought to court
 - king:
   ( ... ... )

 - reeve: church warden. ( ... ... )
 - woodward: the keeper of a forest
   ( ... ... )

Farming and Workers with Flora and Fauna

 - forester: game warden or forest ranger.
   ( ... ... )


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