2011년 11월 8일 화요일

Labor force, labor force participation rate


The civilian non‐institutionalized population is the starting point for most labor force statistics. The civilian non‐institutionalized population consists of all persons aged 16 years old or older who are not in the military and who are not institutionalized. The institutionalized population includes jail and penitentiary inmates, patients at psychiatric hospitals, persons in nursing homes, and persons in boarding schools. In December 2010, the civilian non‐institutionalized population (16+) of the US consisted of 238.3 million persons or about three‐fourths of the nation’s population of 304 million persons. About 73.9 million persons were under the age of 17.

The civilian labor force is defined as those persons in the civilian non‐institutionalized population who are either employed or unemployed. This definition does not include all persons in the civilian non‐institutionalized population. People who do not have jobs but are not actively seeking work are not counted as part of the labor force. In December 2010 there were 153.7 million persons in the U.S. civilian labor force.

The Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) is the proportion of persons in the civilian non‐institutionalized population who are members of the labor force. In December 2010, the national LFPR was 0.645. This figure is simply the 153.7 million persons in the civilian labor force divided by the 238.3 million persons in the civilian non‐institutionalized population. Usually, this figure is multiplied by 100 so that it can be expressed as a percent (in this case, 64.5 percent). ...


지은이: Randy Hodson, Teresa A. Sullivan (2011)

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports the size and composition of the labor force every month by using information from the CPS. Any one is eligible to be counted in the labor force who is aged 16 or older, who is not on active duty in the Armed Forces, and who is not institutionalized (ex. in a prison or a residential hospital). Members of the labor force can be either employed or unemployed.

According to the government's definition of employment, employed people in the labor force are those who in the week preceding the survey (1) worked at least one hour for pay or profit, (2) worked at least 15 hours without pay in a family business, or (3) were temporarily not working because of illness, vacation, or similar reasons. The unemployed are not merely those without jobs; rather, they are people who are not employed but who actively sought work during the four weeks preceding the survey and were currently available to take a suitable job. In addition, people are counted as unemployed if they are temporarily laid off or are waiting to report to a new job in the near future. An eligible person who does not fall into either of these categories is termed NILF(not in the labor force). Most NILF people in the U.S. are students without jobs, retirees, people who have chronic illnesses or disabilities, or homemakers.

Using these concepts, the BLS publishes every month two rates to describe the labor force. The first rateㅡthe ^civilian labor force participation rate^ㅡis the number of persons in the labor force divided by the number of persons eligible to be in it, multiplied by 100 to convert to a percentage. This can be expressed as:

LFPR = ( labor force / all noninstitutionalized persons over 16+) × 100

The labor force participation rate indicates what proportion of the eligible population is economically active. (...)

The ^unemployment rate^ is the number of unemployed people divided by the number of people in the labor force, multiplie d by 100. UR = (unemployed/labor force) × 1000. (...)

As useful as labor force statistics are, the definitions used by the government omit many types of work. The definition of the labor force parallels the measurement of the GNP. The GNP is the value of all the goods and services produced for the market during a year. People who produce goods and services for sale in the market are included in the labor force. The labor force definition excludes many people who perform useful services but not pay or profit. If there were no homemakers or volunteer workers, then families, churches, and hospitals would have to hire workers to perform those duties ot leave them undone. Although the newly hired workers would be in the labor force, homemakers and volunteer workers doing the same work are not in the labor force.

The measurement of unemployment is also controversial. The BLS considers about 2.6 million persons to be marginally attached to the labor force; these people wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime during the year prior to the survey. In the four weeks prior to the survey, however, they had not actively searched for work, and so they were not counted as unemployed. Among the marginally attached workers, there are about 1.2 million ^discouraged workers^, who were not currently looking for work specifically because they believed no jobs were available. By excluding the marginally attached workers, the measured unemployment rate is arguably too low. (...)



The labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population. Browse various labor force characteristics. Data also are available by demographic characteristics. See also Not in the labor force.

■ 자료: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_force( as of Nov. 8, 2011. )

In economics, a labor force or labour force is a region's combined civilian workforce, including both the employed and unemployed.[1]

Normally, the labor force of a country (or other geographic entity) consists of everyone of working age (typically above a certain age (around 14 to 16) and below retirement (around 65) who are participating workers, that is people actively employed or seeking employment. People not counted include students, retired people, stay-at-home parents, people in prisons or similar institutions, people employed in jobs or professions with unreported income, as well as discouraged workers who cannot find work. (...)

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