자료 1: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_public_bank
The German banking system is structured in three different pillars, totally separated from each other. They typically differ in their legal form and the ownership.
- Private banks, represented by banks like Deutsche Bank or Commerzbank as listed companies or Hauck & Aufhäuser or Bankhaus Lampe as less known private companies, are part of the first tier.
- The second tier is composed of co-operative banks like the numerous Volksbanken and Raiffeisenbanken. They are based on a member-structure where each member, independently from its capital share, has one vote.
- The third tier consists of public banks, that are a legally defined arm of the banking industry in Germany and separate into two main groups.
- 431 savings banks using the Sparkasse brand,
- 8 Landesbanken including the DekaBank using separate brands and
- 10 real estate financing banks using the LBS brand.