2014년 8월 1일 금요일

[발췌] 독일의 은행업 구조


자료 1: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_public_bank

The German banking system is structured in three different pillars, totally separated from each other.[1] They typically differ in their legal form and the ownership.[2] 

The German Savings Banks Finance Group (Sparkassen-Finanzgruppe) is the most numerous sub-sector with [:] 
The Deutscher Sparkassen- und Giroverband (German Savings Banks Association, DSGV) represents the interests of the Sparkassen-Finanzgruppe on a national and international level concerning law and the financial services industry. It also coordinates, promotes and harmonises the interests of Sparkassen.[7]

Based on OECD studies, the German public banking system had a share of 40% of total banking assets in Germany.[8]This shows the important and significant role of this group of banks in Germany.

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Sparkassen

Savings banks in German-speaking countries are called Sparkasse (pl: Sparkassen). They work as commercial banks in a decentralized structure.[4] Each savings bank is independent, locally managed and concentrates its business activities on customers in the region it is situated in. In general, savings banks are not profit oriented. Shareholders of the savings banks are usually single cities or numerous cities in an administrative district.[12] Some 6 savings banks (Bordesholmer Sparkasse AG, Spar- und Leihkasse zu Bredstedt AG, Sparkasse Bremen AG, Hamburger SparkasseAG, Sparkasse zu Lübeck AG, Sparkasse Mittelholstein AG) are independent from municipalities; their association is the Verband der Deutschen Freien Öffentlichen Sparkassen.[13]

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Landesbanken

The Landesbanken are mostly owned by the regional savings banks through its regional association and the respective federal state.[5] After several mergers and acquisitions, there are seven Landesbanken-Groups left: BayernLB, Norddeutsche Landesbank (Nord/LB), HSH Nordbank, Landesbank Baden-Württemberg (LBBW), Landesbank Berlin (LBB), Landesbank Hessen-Thuringen - Girozentrale (Helaba), WestLB.[5] Bremer Landesbank Kreditanstalt Oldenburg - Girozentrale belongs with a share of 92,5% to theNord/LB-Group. The rest is owned by the federal state of Bremen.[24] The Sachsen LB and the Landesbank Rheinland-Pfalz (LRP) since April 2008 are subsidiaries of the Landesbank Baden-Württemberg (LBBW).[25] Until 21.06.2010, the BayernLB was majority shareholder of the Landesbank Saar (SaarLB) with a share of 75,1%. Since June 2010, the Saarland has become shareholder with a stake of 35,2% and the BayernLB reduced its share to 49,9%. The remaining 14,9% are held by the Sparkassen through its regional confederation.[26]

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The regional banks / clearing houses are the central banks of a savings bank association and act as the "main bank" of the states. They are also local banks, mortgage banks and general commercial banks. Their duties and power is codified in the individual country banking laws of the Länder (Landesbankengesetze). The specific tasks for the savings banks include the central clearing for cashless payments and liquidity funding for the regional savings banks. They also provide many services for the savings banks in the region in securities and cross-country businesses. In contrast to savings banks, they are doing "wholesale-banking" instead of retail-banking.[27] With combined total assets of EUR 1,620 trillion as of December 2010, the 7 Landesbanken-Groups employ some 44.000 people.[28]

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( ... ... ) Germany has universal banking. The private customer mostly has to choose between three kinds of banks (German "three pillar system"):

(A) private banks (including direct banks): the largest ones are Deutsche Bank, Postbank (acquired by Deutsche Bank), Unicredit Bank AG (HypoVereinsbank), Commerzbank and Dresdner Bank (which was acquired by Commerzbank in 2008) – they cooperate together as the Cash Group



Private banks are found mostly in the cities whereas cooperative and savings banks are almost everywhere, and are often exclusive in smaller villages.

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