- 자료: http://www.unescap.org/resources/what-good-governance, July 10, 2009
- PDF: http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/good-governance.pdf
- 지은이: Yap Kioe Sheng ( Chief, Poverty Reduction Section UNESCAP, UN Building, Rajdamnern Nok Ave. Bangkok 10200, Thailand )
※ 발췌 (excerpts):
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Recently the terms "governance" and "good governance" are being increasingly used in development literature. Bad governance is being increasingly regarded as one of the root causes of all evil within our societies. Major donors and international financial institutions are increasingly basing their aid loans on the condition that reforms that ensure "good governance" are undertaken.
This article tries to explain, as simply as possible, what "governance" and "good governance" means.
The concept of "governance" is not new. It is as old as human civilization. Simply put, "governance" means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be used in several contexts such as corporate governance , international governance, national governance and local governance.
Since governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented, an analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made and the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement the decision.
Government is one of the actors in governance. Other factors involved in governance vary depending on the level of governance that is under discussion. In rural areas, for example, other actors may include influential land lords, associations of peasant farmers, cooperatives, NGOs, research institutes, religious leaders, finance institutions, political parties, the military etc. Figure 1 provides the interconnections between actors involved in urban governance. At the national level, in addition to the above actors, media, lobbyists, international donors, multi-national corporations, etc. may play a role in decision-making or in influencing the decision-making process.
All actors other than government and the military are grouped together as part of the "civil society." In some countries in addition to the civil society, organized crime syndicates also influence decision-making, particularly in urban areas and the national level.
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<Figure 1> Urban actors
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Good governance has 8 major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society.
(2) Rule of law
(5) Consensus oriented
(6) Equity and inclusiveness
(7) Effectiveness and efficiency
From the above discussion it should be clear that good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in it totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of make it a reality.