2013년 3월 8일 금요일

[searches & excerpts on Hayek's] The Road to Serfdom

[1] Alan O. Ebenstein, Friedrich Hayek: A Biography (2nd ed., University of Chicago Press, 2003) 

자료: 구글도서

※ 발췌(excerpts): Chapter 14_ The Abuse and Decline of Reason (pp. 104~)

pp. 106 ~: 

Hayek recalled that "light burden of teaching"[10] and short distance to and from class at Cambridge gave him more time for his own work than ever before. As he wound up in incomplete work in capital and monetary theory, he turned to broader fields of societal inquiry. While he did not intent to leave technical economics, this was the direction his career took.

He became acting director of the LSE journal Economica during WWII as his former colleagues were called into government service. Between 1941 and 1944 he published six articles in Economica that were republished in 1952 as The Counter-Revolution of Science. He gave as background for this new work that a "very special situation arose in England that people were seriously believing that National Socialism was a capitalist reaction against socialism. So I wrote a memorandum on this subject, turned in into a journal article, and then used the war to write out what was really a sort of advance popular version [The Road to Serfdom] of what I had imagined would be the great book on the abuse and decline of reason."[11] He wrote on a "remote subject matter in a state of intensive concentration with which I reacted to my impotence against the continuous disruptions falling bombs."[12] His first article of what eventually became The Road to Serfdom, "Freedom and Economic System," was published in April 1938, though Hayek began work in this area several years earlier.

The two parts of treatise on The Abuse and Decline of Reason, of which The Road to Serfdom was an advance popular edition of the second part, were sequentially to be titled "Hubris of Reason" and "The Nemesis of the Planned Society."[13] Decades later, in an initial draft of The Fatal Conceit, he wrote that The Abuse and Decline of Reason was intended to be a critique of modern thought. The first part was to be the historical description of modern thought that Hayek did not complete, and the second partㅡwhich became The Road to Serfdomㅡwas to have been the practical outcomes of the historical ideas that he would have sketched in the first part. The Abuse and Decline of Reason was intended to demonstrate how an excessive conception of what reason can accomplish in society leads to the destruction, through the planned society, of what reason can actually achieve. An erroneous conception of reason leads to its decline.


Footnote No.9 of chapter 18: 

Cockett, 9. Lippmann's work suggested to Hayek the title of the second part of his intended The Abuse and Decline of Reason. He quoted Lippmann in ^The Road to Serfom^: "The generation to which we belong is now learning from experience what happens when men retreat from freedom to a coercive organization of their affairs. Though they promise themselves a more abundant life, they must in practice renounce it; as the organized direction increases, the variety of ends must give way to uniformity. That is ^the nemesis of the planned society^ and the authoritarian principle in human affairs [emphasis added]" (in ^RS^ 21)

[2] Alan O. Ebenstein, Hayek's Journey: The Mind of Friedrich Hayek (Palgrave MacMillan, 2003)
구글도서 서지
자료: http://burusi.wordpress.com/2010/12/27/hayek/

His best-known work was his response to World War II and the rise of totalitarian, militarily aggressive dictatorships. The Road to Serfdom was an advance, popular sketch of the intended second part of the larger “The Abuse and Decline of Reason” to be titled “The Nemesis of the Planned Society.”

[3] F.A. Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty: A new statement of the liberal principles of justice and political economy
자료: 구글도서

※ 발췌(excerpts):  Footnote no. 19 of some chapter(maybe  "Model Constitution")

This was the title I had intended to give to a work I had planned in 1939, in which a part on the 'Hubris of Reason' was to be followed by one on 'The Nemesis of the Planned Society'. Only a fragment of this plan was ever carried out and the parts written published first in Economica 1941-5 and then reprinted in a volume entitled ^The Counter-Revolution of Science^ (Chicago, 1952), to the German translation of which I later gave the title Missbrauch und Verfall der Vernunft (Frankfurt, 1959) when it became clear that I would never complete it according to the original plan. ^The Road to Serfdom^ (London and Chicago, 1944) was an advance sketch of what I had intended to make the second part. But it has taken me forty years to think through the original idea.

[4] Bruce Caldwell, Hayek on Socialism and on the Welfare State: A Comment on Farrant and Mcphail's "Does F.A. Hayek's Road to Serfdom Deserve to Make a Comeback?" (Working Paper, 2010)

[5] F. A. Hayek, The Collected Works, vol. 13: Studies on the Abuse and Decline of Reason: Text and Documents (Routledge, 2010)
자료: 구글도서

OF WHICH: Introduction (by Bruce Caldwell)

※ 발췌(excerpts):

(... ...) On August 27, 1939 Hayek wrote a letter to Fritz Machlup, an old friend from university days.[1] He told him about his plans for his next big research project, a wide-ranging historical investigation that would incorporate intellectual history, methodology, and an analysis of social problems, all aimed at shedding lights on the consequences of socialism:
A series of case studies should come first, that would have as its starting point certain problems of methodology and especially the relationship between the method of natural science and social problems, leading to the fundamental scientific principles of economic policy and ultimately to the consequences of socialism. The series should form the basis of a systematic intellectual historical investigation of the fundamental principles of the social development of the last hundred years (from Saint-Simon to Hitler)[2]
The date on the letter is significant. Four days earlier, the Molotov-Ribbentrop non-aggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union had been signed. Five days later Hitler would invade Poland. On September 3, England and France would respond by declaring war on Germany. The Second World War had begun.

(...) Within a week of England's declaration, Hayek drafted a letter to the director general of the British Ministry of Information offering his service to the war effort. (...) the letter of the Ministry thanked him for his proposals but failed to ask for his assistance.

Only parts of that grand project would ever be finished.
  • The "series of case studies" relating methodology and the scientific method to social problems that Hayek mentioned first would ultimately become his essay "Scientism and the Study of Society"
  • The intellectual history part would never be completed: only his study of the origins of scientism in France, which carried the title "The Counter-Revolution of Science", plus the short piece "Compte and Hegel", would be published. 
  • Hayek got sidetracked, first by the growth in scope of his "Scientism" essay, 
  • and then by his decision to transform the last part of his project, the part on "the consequences of socialism," into a separate full-length book. That volume would appear in 1944 and would be called The Road to Serfdom.

Hayek's larger book would have carried the provocative title ^The Abuse and Decline of Reason^, and that title has been retained for his ^Collected Works^ edition, with the words "Studies on" added to emphasise that the originally envisioned volume was never completed. This introduction will tell the story of Hayek's greatest unfinished piece of work. It will document the sequence in which the essays were created, explore some of their major themes, and examine some aspects of Hayek's intellectural history that may help to explain why he made the arguments that he did. In the concluding sections, a brief assessment of Hayek's contribution will be offered, and the significance of the Abuse of Reason project for the later development of his ideas will be traced.

The Creation of the Essays

The studies of which this book is the result have from the beginning been guided by and in the end confirmed the somewhat old-fashioned conviction of the author that it is human ideas which govern the development of human affairs.[6] ([6]: This and subsequent aphorisms are taken from Hayek's notes on the project, some of which appear to have been for an intended, but never written, preface for the book. The notes may be found in the Hayek papers, box 107, folder 17, Hoover Institution Archives.)

About ten months after his initial letter, in June 1940, Hayek wrote again to Machlup about his new endeavour. His enthusiasm is transparent:
It is a great subject and one could make a great book of it. I believe indeed I have now found an approach to the subject through which one could exercise some real influence. But whether I shall ever be able to write it depends of course not only on whether one survives this but also on the outcome of it all. If things go really badly I shall certainly not be able to continue it here and since I believe that it is really important and the best I can do for the future of mankind, I should then have to try to transfer my activities elsewhere. Since at a later stage it may be difficult to write about it, I have already sent copies of the outline of the first part to Haberler and Lipmann[sic][7] as a basis of any future application to one of the foundations for funds, and I am enclosing another copy with this letter. (...) The second part would of course be an elaboration of the central argument of my pamphlet on Freedom and the Economic System.[8]
(... ...)

The outline he included shows that he had established where he wanted to go with the book, even to the point of creating titles for the first 18 chapters. The subtitle, as well as the title of part I, reveal his major theme: the abuse and decline of reason was caused by the hubris by man's pride in his ability to reason, which in Hayek's mind had been heightened by the rapid advance and multitudinous successes of the natural sciences, and the attempt to apply natural science methods in the social sciences. The letter also indicates that he had already decided that the second part of the book, to be titled "The Totalitarian Nemesis", was to be an expansion of the themes found in his 1939 article "Freedom and the Economic System".[9]

(... page 5-6 unavailable ...)

p. 7 ~:

(...) volume".[12] By the summer Hayek would report that a "much enlarged" version of the pamphlet was "unfortunately growing into a full fledged book".[13] Finally, by October 1941 Hayek told Machlup that he had decided to devote nearly all of his time to what would become ^The Road to Serfdom^:

(... ...)

(...) Two years later the prospects for the allies seemed brighter, but a new danger was looming. Hayek increasingly feared that the popular enthusiasm for planning, one that had only increased during the war, would affect postwar policy in England.[15] ^The Road to Serfdom^ was intended as a counterweight to these trends. Working on it became his first priority, even if it meant delaying his more scholarly treatment of the historical origins and eventual spread of the doctrine that had in his estimation led to the abuse and decline of reason.

(... ...)

Major Themes of the "Scientism" Essay

(... ...)

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