2012년 4월 7일 토요일

[메모] galloping inflation, and types of inflation

1. gallop: 4[VERB] V adv, V-ing △If something such as a process gallops, it develops very quickly and is often difficult to control.

  • In spite of the recession, profits have galloped ahead.
  • ...galloping inflation.
..... COBUILD




3. galloping inflation: very rapid inflation which is almost impossible to reduce (Investor Words)



Types of inflation on the basis of rising prices or rate of inflation:

Creeping Inflation : When prices are gently rising, it is referred as Creeping Inflation. It is the mildest form of inflation and also known as a Mild Inflation or Low Inflation. According to R.P. Kent, when prices rise by not more than (upto) 3% per annum (year), it is called Creeping Inflation.

Chronic Inflation : If creeping inflation persist (continues to increase) for a longer period of time then it is often called as Chronic or Secular Inflation. Chronic Creeping Inflation can be either Continuous (which remains consistent without any downward movement) or Intermittent (which occurs at regular intervals). It is called chronic because if an inflation rate continues to grow for a longer period without any downturn, then it possibly leads to Hyperinflation.

Walking Inflation : When the rate of rising prices is more than the Creeping Inflation, it is known as Walking Inflation. When prices rise by more than 3% but less than 10% per annum (i.e between 3% and 10% per annum), it is called as Walking Inflation. According to some economists, walking inflation must be taken seriously as it gives a cautionary signal for the occurrence of Running inflation. Furthermore, if walking inflation is not checked in due time it can eventually result in Galloping inflation.

Moderate Inflation : Prof. Samuelson clubbed together concept of Creeping and Walking inflation into Moderate Inflation. When prices rise by less than 10% per annum (single digit inflation rate), it is known as Moderate Inflation. According to Prof. Samuelson, it is a stable inflation and not a serious economic problem.

Running Inflation : A rapid acceleration in the rate of rising prices is referred as Running Inflation. When prices rise by more than 10% per annum, running inflation occurs. Though economists have not suggested a fixed range for measuring running inflation, we may consider price rise between 10% to 20% per annum (double digit inflation rate) as a running inflation.

Galloping Inflation : According to Prof. Samuelson, if prices rise by double or triple digit inflation rates like 30% or 400% or 999% per annum, then the situation can be termed as Galloping Inflation. When prices rise by more than 20% but less than 1000% per annum (i.e. between 20% to 1000% per annum), galloping inflation occurs. It is also referred as Jumping inflation. India has been witnessing galloping inflation since the second five year plan period.

Hyperinflation : Hyperinflation refers to a situation where the prices rise at an alarming high rate. The prices rise so fast that it becomes very difficult to measure its magnitude. However, in quantitative terms, when prices rise above 1000% per annum (quadruple or four digit inflation rate), it is termed as Hyperinflation. During a worst case scenario of hyperinflation, value of national currency (money) of an affected country reduces almost to zero. Paper money becomes worthless and people start trading either in gold and silver or sometimes even use the old barter system of commerce. Two worst examples of hyperinflation recorded in world history are of those experienced by Hungary in year 1946 and Zimbabwe during 2004-2009 under Robert Mugabe's regime.


5. 자료: 16장, 실업과 인플레이션 ( 김진영의 경제학 산책 )

(... ...) 인플레이션은 서서히 발생하는 경우도 있지만 엄청나게 빠른 속도로 나타나기도 한다. 인플레이션이 일어나는 속도에 따라 완만한 인플레이션(moderate inflation), 질주형 인플레이션(galloping inflation), 그리고 초인플레이션(hyperinflation)으로 구분할 수 있다. (... ...)


댓글 쓰기