자료 속 단위 제목: Module 5-7 Labor Relations Legislation and Union Org.
1.Labor Relations Legislation
2.The Road to Unionization
3.Union Decertification and De authorization
* * *그중 1: Labor Relations Legislation
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
- The first legislation enacted by the U.S Congress to curb concentrations of power that interfere with trade and reduce economic competition.
- The act was primarily directed at large monopolistic employers but was applied by courts to the labor unions as if they were a monopoly.
- Unions had been continually frustrated by employer tactics to discourage unionism. The most hated tactic was the injunction.
※ 파업, 피케팅 등 노조활동에 대해 금지명령(Injunction)을 구하는 민사소송이 많았으며, 금지명령은 주로 노동자의 이익과 파업을 줄이기 위해 사용되어졌음. (dissipate the worker’s interest and break strikes) 당시 여러 주 법원에서는 근로조건 개선을 구하는 평화적인 파업에 대해서는 합법성을 인정하였으나, 피켓팅이나 시위의 행위는 폭력성이 따르지 않아도 본질적으로 강제, 협박에 해당한다는 견해가 뿌리깊었고, 노조보다는 대기업의 입장에서 판결하는 태도를 보였음.
Clayton Act (1914)
- Was enacted as an amendment to clarify and supplement the Sherman Anti Trust Act. And regulates general practices that potentially may be detrimental to fair competition, such as:
- Price discrimination
- Tying contract (끼워팔기)
- Exclusive dealing(우리 외에는 거래하지 마라)
- Interlocking directorate(겸직임원제도)
- M&A that lessen competition
- The act stated that “the labor of a human being is not a commodity or article of commerce” and hence not a violation of the Sherman Act provisions that had been legal basis for injunctions against union org.
And the act minimally restricted the use of the injunction against the labor and legalized peaceful strikes, picketing, boycotts.