2011년 3월 21일 월요일

Dic: banyan, banyan merchant

자료 1: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banyan

A banyan (also banian) is a fig[무화과 나무] that starts its life as an epiphyte when its seeds germinate in the cracks and crevices on a host tree (or on structures like buildings and bridges). "Banyan" often refers specifically to the Indian Banyan or Ficus benghalensis, the National tree of India,[1]

Etymology

The name was originally given to F. benghalensis and comes from India where early travellers observed that the shade of the tree was frequented by banias or Indian traders.[7]
In the Gujarati language, banya means "grocer/merchant," not "tree." The Portuguese picked up the word to refer specifically to Hindu merchants and passed it along to the English as early as 1599 with the same meaning. By 1634, English writers began to tell of the banyan tree, a tree under which Hindu merchants would conduct their business. The tree provided a shaded place for a village meeting or for merchants to sell their goods. Eventually "banyan" became the name of the tree itself.

자료 2: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banyan_merchants

Vaishya, (vi- shia) also known as Vaisya, Vanika or Vysyas, is one of the four varnas (social order) of Hinduism. According to Vedic tradition, this order primarily comprises merchants, cattle-herders and artisans.[1][2] In Hindu beliefs, the duties of a Vaisya, as described by Hindu God Krishna, are krsi (growing food grains),goraksha (cow protection), vanijyam (trade), vaisya karma (work) and svabhavajam (born of his own nature[???]). The Vaisyas eventually became land-owners, money-lenders and influential traders and are often credited for the evolution of capitalist ideologies in India.[3]
The Vaisyas, along with the Kshatriyas, claim to be of the 'twice born' (dvija) castes of the classical theory.[4] Historically, Vaisyas have played a much larger role in Indian affairs apart from trade and commerce. Indian traders were widely credited for the spread of Indian culture to regions as far as southeast Asia.[5]

The Vaisya community consist of several Jātis, notably — the Agarwals, the Varshneys, the Khandelwals, the Mathurs, the Oswals, Aroras, Rastogis, Lohanas and theMaheshwaris of the north; the Arya Vysyas of the south; and the Ambanis, Sarabhais, Beesa Neema, Dasa Neema, Dasore, Parekhs and Patidars of the west. Some jātis are of mixed heritage. For example, according to legend, the Agrawals trace their origin to the Kshatriya Sun Dynasty who later adopted Vaisya tradition.[6][7] Khandelwals and Barnwals are similarly from Kshatriya background and their adoption of Vaishya Dharma is of relatively recent origins, probably no more than a thousand years.

Vaishyas in most of the country come under the forward castes. In Bihar and Jharkhand, Baniya come under OBCs because of the economic situation there.
[edit]See also
Varna (Hinduism)
Agarwal
Tarkhan
Bengali Banik
Patel
Royal Vaisya in Kerala

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