2015년 4월 3일 금요일

[발췌: 아마티아 센, 자유로서의 발전] Chap 4, Poverty as Capability Deprivation


출처: Amartya Sen. Development as Freedom. Alfred A. Knopf, 1999.


※ 발췌 (excerpts): pp. 87 ~ 88

* * *

Chapter 4_ Poverty as Capability Deprivation


It was argued in the last chapter, in analyzing social justice, there is a strong case for judging individual advantage in terms of the capabilities that a person has, that is, the substantive freedoms he or she enjoys to lead the kind of lie he or she has reason the value. In this perspective, poverty must be seen as the deprivation of basic capabilities rather merely as lowness of incomes, which is the standard criterion of identification of poverty. [n.1]  The perspective of capability-poverty does not involve any denial of the sensible view that low income is clearly one of the major causes of poverty, since lack of income can be a principal reason for a person's capability deprivation.

  Indeed, inadequate income is a strong predisposing condition for an impoverished life. If this is accepted, what then is all this fuss about, in seeing poverty in the capability perspective (as opposed to seeing it in terms of the standard income-based poverty assessment)? The claim in favor of the capability approach to poverty are, I believe, the following. [:]

  • 1) Poverty can be sensibly identified in terms of capability deprivation; the approach concentrates on deprivations that are ^intrinsically^ important (unlike low income, which in only ^instrumentally^ significant).
  • 2) There are influences on capability deprivation─and thus on real poverty─^other^ than lowness of income (income is not the only instrument in generating capabilities).
  • 3) The instrumental relation between low income and low capability is ^variable^ between different communities and even between families and different individuals (the impact of income on capabilities is contingent and conditional). [n.2] 

  The third issue is particularly important in considering and evaluatinf public actin aimed at reducing inequality or poverty. Various reasons for conditional variations have been discussed in the literature (and in chapter 3, earlier), and it is useful to emphasize some of them specifically in the context of policy making.

  ( ... ... )

댓글 쓰기